Thursday, November 17, 2016

Human Sciences & WOK~explain your thinking


What ways of knowing are privileged in this AOK?  How are the other WOKs used in gaining, sharing, and evaluating knowledge in this AOK?

36 comments:

  1. In terms of the Human Sciences, the following WOKs all play a part in how we perceive and apply it. Language,imagination and Sense perception are all influential in how we gain knowledge pertaining to the human sciences, The first two are powerful tools in terms of sharing and evaluatio. Emotion, Reason, and Faith are primarily used in the evaluation front to see the motive behind the information being presented. For example my article stated that the human sciences was originally refereed to as the moral sciences, meaning ethical and social views correspond with human actions, so emotion, faith and reason all play a part when an ethical situation is presented.

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  2. Sabeena

    Human Sciences is the study of human behavior and interaction. They correspond to Social Sciences as well as humanities. However, this aok has many branches that play a role in our everyday lives. They all play a role in how we gain, share, and evaluate knowledge. Some areas that fall under the umbrella of Human Sciences include anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, cultural studies, demography, economics, human geography, history, linguistics, media studies, political science, psychology, social work and sociology. The purpose of the human sciences are to improve the modern human condition. This is why they play major roles in education, history, political science, linguistics, etc. Education is the communication of knowledge or skills that are meant to be passed down, history is the narrative of past events that relate to humanity, political science is the study of political behavior and systems, and linguistics are the cognitive and social aspects of how we communicate. All of these branches utilize many ways of knowing since the objective of all of these are to expand and enlighten the human being's knowledge of their existence and relationship to the rest of the world. For instance, sense perception is important because the Human Sciences revolve around what we observe. Sense perception includes what we see, hear, touch, smell, and taste. All of these senses contribute to the analysis of the human experience and activity for the purpose of gaining an understanding of human phenomena. For example, at many mental institutions doctors and psychologists observe the patient's actions such as what they see them doing or hearing what they say in order to diagnose them. This gives us more insight on the human condition so that we know exactly what to treat them with and how to care for them. Language is also a very important wok in the human sciences. Communication is how new ideas and knowledge are passed around. For instance, in order to get information on a past event we use primary sources. They each give their own narrative to what happened. This knowledge continues to passed on so that we are able to gain the most knowledge from. For example, in our history class we learned how people who lived through the Great Depression would share their stories in order to describe what it was like living in that period and why it occurred. This information that is communicated helps us better understand that time period better and gives us insight as to how we can prevent it. Intuition also plays into the human sciences because with it we can sense whether something is right or wrong. Faith also plays a role because it also influences our perception of what's right and wrong. This plays into our justice system and laws which are made to create social order. Reason also plays a role in this because in court cases judges have to use reason, intuition and emotion in order to make a ruling.

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  3. Bintou

    In human sciences, language, reason and memory are privileged, as we have to piece together evidence from our history in order to make conclusions on the social, cultural and biological aspects of human existence. Sense perception and intuition can help evoke how people view our society, and emotion can give us a clue on this aspect learning about faith can take us into a certain group belief. Finally, imagination can help us think of ways to improve our society by thinking about the past.

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  4. yared part 1

    What ways of knowing are privileged in this AOK? How are the other WOKs used in gaining, sharing, and evaluating knowledge in this AOK?
    People have different ways of knowing, and all of them are equally important. In terms of the Human Sciences, all eight of the different WOKs are important in understanding the relevant parts of the the field. However, like other AOKs, Human Sciences, also has some WOKs that prevail more than the others. Language, is a good example, and so are reason, emotion, and faith. With this in mind, there are other WOKs that aren't as privileged, and they are: imagination, sense perception and memory. As implied earlier, theses three WOKs are still important in the Human Sciences, but they don't hold as much weight as the six WOKs mentioned previously. In this short essay, I can't possibly discuss all of the eight WOKs (extensively) and their relationship with the human sciences; Therefore, I will focus on two, sense perception and imagination, while giving a limited focus on the remaining WOKs. Language is an important WOK that gives an important insight into the Human Sciences while Sense Perception is another WOK that doesn't have as much influence.

    To what extent is language privileged in the human sciences?

    I personally understand the importance of language in the Human Sciences because I took IB Business last year. Towards the end of the year, all of the students received a case study to prepare for the external assessment. Understanding the cause study was only a matter of understanding the passage, or the words written on the page. This means language was a key factor of this because, if I didn't understand the language, I wouldn't be able to pass the class. The importance of language didn't stop there because, on test day, I had to prove my understanding of business by answering a series of questions. Without language, I wouldn't have been able to prove my understanding of the given task and thus my mastery of the subject. This is a great example of the importance of language in business and Human Sciences, as a whole.
    Language is an important part of communication so it is hard to truly understand the human sciences without it. If we take this one step further with business, it is easier to see how language the core part of that field. This is because communication is an important part of business but this communication isn't always verbal or written. This is mentioned in the Tok chapter for language and we also discussed it in TOK class. During the first few days of TOK, we also had the chance to learn the different types of culture that exist in different parts of the world. This is related to body language because it has different meanings just like depending on the location. Now this brings us back to business because the business man need to pay attention to language and not imagination to make effective communication. Communicating with people with different cultures takes careful planning and it just isn't practical to just imagine. This is epically costly with business because as we learned in class, mistakes come at a cost of a large sum of money. This takes us back to language because it is the core of any form of business and without it, it is hard to say a company would stay in business. In a larger application, language is an important part of understanding different aspects of the Human Sciences.

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  5. Yared part 2
    To what extent is sense perception privileged in the human sciences?




    Sense perception has a different role in the human sciences because it isn't that privileged as language. In history class, for example I don't use my sense perception to learn about the past. It wouldn't make sense for me to personally feel the time with my hands because it just isn't realistic. I can, however, read and make sure not to repeat some of the same mistakes. The lesson on the Mexican Revolution is a good example because it was a war that had confusing plot and characters. There sure want anything I could tasted in order to understand the war but there were plenty of material to read. I think this show how language is an important part of understanding history but it just isn't practical to use our sense perception.

    Our senses aren’t completely useless when learning about history because watching videos could be a good way of learning. Seeing is a sense perception that has the power to help is learn from videos. This may be true, but watching the videos wouldn't be sufficient to fully understand the event. If, for example, I watch an entire documentary, it wouldn't really make sense if I don't have the chance to hear the narrator or read the subtitle. The videos don't explanation themselves so this takes us back to those importance of language and how it is the glue that keeps the human science together.







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  6. Camiella,
    Human sciences deals with the “totality of human actions and its social manifestations” and it aims to bridge together subjectivity and objectivity mainly because humans themselves are opinionated and incapable of being entirely objective so rather than trying to rid ourselves of that through empirical sciences, it is rather we accept it along with the other sciences. Human sciences are in general social sciences or soft sciences e.g psychology, sociology, and to some extent economics. Reasoning is privileged in this AOK because for the main part when analyzing human sciences, experts argue the rationality of the situation or the thought process the people being studied. We also use reasoning to justify our personal gain as stated by Hollick. Language is also privileged because Human sciences studies the interaction between people, as well as people and the environment. Whether it is through body language or verbal language, social interaction is being studied. Also emotion plays a big deal in the human sciences, as we interact with each other and the environment we feel certain emotions for each event, whether negative or positive which affects our perception of the situation. One won’t continue to do what made them feel pain or sickness but they will keep doing what makes them happy. That I believe is why during surveys (when applicable) people are asked “how does that make you feel”. Sense perception is privileged here as well, we learn through our senses also, when talking to someone we gauge their reaction by looking at things such as facial expression and if they are reacting the way we want them to. When scientists do things in the lab for example, perfume scientists, their nose is the ultimate judge of whether it is good or bad. If someone walks up to you and you smell bad or your perfume is too overwhelming, they will find a way to evade you. An article I read stated that human sciences can be validated by application to past events, or achievements or future results so that leans towards memory. After something is done we can think back to it, how it made us feel, how it affected others and make a ‘valid’ conclusion from there. We can share knowledge gained from Human Sciences through faith as well, it can be tricky but once we do something or perform a study under a human science and it is validated, we now believe that as true and pass it on to any ear willing to listen. Pastors, when they’ve had a spiritual encounter or did something that changed their life, they are more than willing to say it during sermon and the people drink it all in and emulate the action that caused said miracle. Intuition and Imagination help us gain knowledge in the human sciences. I believe most sciences require at least some imagination to begin the process. We look at things or a situation and then imagine possible solutions before we act on them, we must even imagine our intuitions. Take first impressions during interviews, before one actually meets the employer, they imagine multiple ways to greet or sit, basically plan out the whole ordeal before it occurs.

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  7. Aakilah
    The human sciences involves studying and interpreting various human experiences. This means that the ways of knowing that would be most associated with it are reason and perception. When we study human interactions we use our perception reasoning abilities to interpret it and gain knowledge from it. The human sciences can be divided into different areas such as psychology or sociology. One of the most common ways to get information in these disciplines is through observation. Researchers conduct controlled experiments to study human behavior. How this information is interpreted is through however we perceive it. But we use our senses to observe this information in the first place. Reason is also used to interpret our observations. We use our reasoning to determine which relationships in our observations make the most sense. We logically determine which two things have a cause and effect relationship in affecting human behavior.
    While reason and perception can be considered to be the ways of knowing most privileged to the human sciences all of the ways still work together so that we can gain knowledge from the human sciences. We use perception in the initial gathering of information through experimentation. Then our reasoning and emotions affect how we interpret our observations. Language is also involved throughout the acquiring knowledge process in the human sciences. In the experimental part of the human sciences observers often ask their subjects questions. However the words used or the way that the question was asked can affect how the question is going to be answered. This is also true for the answers or when this information is published as different things can be interpreted differently depending on what that specific person thinks of it.

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  8. Jody

    Language and reason are the two areas of knowledge that are privileged in the human sciences since the human sciences focus on anything associated with human beings, such as law. Language is how we are able to communicate and reason is defined as the way in which we try to make sense of various actions or events. These two AOKs have an advantage in the human sciences because, in law for example, language and reason play a huge role in the decision that the jury or the judge would make. This is because language and reason come into play with how manipulative or convincing the testimonies, the defendant, the plaintiff or the lawyer was regardless of the evidence presented as they try to justify their actions or their client’s actions. This is shown in cases where there is sufficient evidence for a conviction but lawyers use the insanity defense so that their client would be found not guilty. One such case is the John Hinckley Jr. case in which he attempted to assassinate President Ronald Reagan but was found not guilty and was also acquitted of all his charges of assault, murder and weapon counts. In this case, language and reason were used to convince the judge and the jury that John Hinckley Jr. was not guilty and to also justify his actions.

    Using the same example of the John Hinckley Jr. case, sense perception, faith and imagination would be used to gain knowledge, emotion and intuition would be used to evaluate knowledge and memory would be used to share knowledge. Sense perception is how a person is able to perceive his/her surroundings through their 5 senses while faith is a strong belief in something and imagination is when the mind uses its creative process to bring ideas and scenarios to life. Sense perception would play a role in the case with how the judge and jury gain knowledge of what led Hinckley to commit the crime he did, faith would come into play with whether or not the judge and jury believed that he was truly insane and imagination would come into play when their minds tried to make sense of the incident that occurred. These three WOKs are used to gain knowledge since they work to help the judge and jury to understand why Hinckley was innocent and why he shouldn’t be found guilty. Emotion can be defined as a strong feeling while intuition can be defined as an instinctive feeling. These two ways of knowing could have come into play as evaluative tools within the case when (or if) the judge and jury had felt pity (emotion) for Hinckley and based on how convincing Hinckley and his lawyers were about him being insane then an instinctive feeling would arise where the judge and jury would intuitively think that Hinckley was truly insane. Memory is the way in which we are able to recount information and so in this case memory plays a role in how the court case is remembered so that the knowledge of what happened within that case can be used as a precedent for similar future court cases.

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  9. Priscilla
    The ways of knowing that I think are privileged in the Human sciences are emotions, memory, imagination and intuition. This is because these deal with humans and the psychological aspects. In human sciences, scientists look for more than objectivity and measurable data, they look for subjectivity and the inner most part of the human behavior and these ways of knowing show that. In my article for the methodology of human science, it explained that only “concepts derived from logical elements of sense-experience” can be accepted as real subjects of scientific investigation which is basically natural science. Parts of human sciences like anthropology, sociology, business, psychology etc, use these ways of knowing in their own different ways. With anthropology researchers have to study human emotions alongside their culture, some entrepreneurs use their intuition to start their business like the people from shark tank, psychology uses all these ways of knowing since it actually deals with the human mind and its functions.
    Reasoning can be used in the human sciences to gain and evaluate the knowledge gained from studies and experiments. Reasons can be used to evaluate human behavior and why people act in certain ways. At this point it becomes logically which can be then considered as a “legitimate scientific investigation”. Reason in its way makes human science a measurable science because it allows researchers to figure out the sense being every behavior by people in a community. Sense perception can also be used in sharing and also evaluating knowledge in the area of knowledge by making it more objective. Sense perception also works with sharing and gaining knowledge with researchers both in the same discipline and others. With sense perception scientist are able to have some kind of peer review on each other’s works and ideas and some information can be transferred to other areas of knowledge as my article stated the concept of motivation in psychology can be seen as physical force in physics.

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  10. Alexander Part 1
    Perhaps the most controversial of all the ways of knowing, Human Sciences can be seen as the aborted fetus of the natural sciences and human unpredictability. Yet, debate exists over whether the human sciences describe what is merely there, or creates further knowledge through experiments and models, that although resemble the scientific method, is mostly observational. Human interactions and societal systems are unpredictable, and in sociology, the actor-network theory tries to categorize ideas and people into materials and concepts. The Human sciences can sometimes blur the line between mere numbers, and human populations, to the extent that some fields, like psychology, try to be like a natural science. However, by leaving the human sciences be as it is, it provides fodder for discussion.
    Reason is the first ‘privileged’ area of knowledge in the work of human sciences. Before, the scholasticism movement of the medieval era, the human sciences were nonexistent. Instead schools of divination and theology filled the gap, not only for human sciences, but for natural sciences as well. When Thomas Aquinas wrote, Summa Theologiae, and tried to mesh Aristotle’s philosophy with contemporary theology, natural philosophy was born. Further down the road, empiricism and natural philosophy were found at odds. How could a field like psychology be tested through the scientific method? Clearly, it was not enough for things to be tested using the scientific method. Yet, reason is employed every day in the human sciences, perhaps a remnant of natural philosophy. However, reason itself limits the human sciences. For example, reason is not universal, and therefore, different interpretations of reason can be applied in the human sciences. One cannot use reason to convince another person, if they are subject to faulty reasoning, and vice versa. Confirmation bias is strong, especially when data is correlated with ethnographic data. For example, the stereotype of Asians being the ‘model minority,’ it over generalizes the entire ethnicity. Although Asians overall have the highest rate of higher level degrees, Asians from Laos and Cambodia, countries where genocide and high poverty levels were common, have the lowest rate of higher level degrees in the country. Ergo, using reason can lead to incorrect application of data, especially when talking about large groups of people.
    The second ‘privileged’ area of knowledge is emotion, for many reasons. Firstly, I believe ethics stems mainly from emotion. (religion as well, but that’s an AOK, not WOK, being faith, which runs a positive feedback loop in ethics, unlike emotion.) Emotion acts as a barrier to experiments and studies in the human sciences. Any sane person would argue that when another human being suffers in any experiment, the experiment is most likely flawed in its methodology. And 9.9999/10 times that is true. For example, let’s get meta here: Nazi experimentation during WW2. As soon as someone hears that we “learned from the experiments even though it was cruel,” people automatically let the quantitative data get in way of qualitative data. Instead this lie allows them to rationalize the horrors of the experiments. Here emotion is vulnerable, because reason can at times, ironically, overthrow emotion for ‘the greater good.’ So, where the Nazi experiments valuable to modern medicine? No. Instead, the reasoning (racial theory) immediately causes the researchers to lose almost all credibility. Then, the subjects themselves, most likely prisoners of war, are flawed subjects. Overall, this is the consequences of natural sciences and human sciences mixing together to form some sort of Frankenstein method of ‘knowledge.’ However, emotion does cause outrages when you hear of ‘experiments’ such as the one with syphilis at Tuskegee, but one most acknowledge that emotion is vulnerable, and highly favors the outcome instead of the process.

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  11. Alexander Part 2
    Third, is Sense perception, following the debate of ‘Seeing is believing.” Commonly applied to psychology, empiricism affects all fields in the human sciences. Sense Perception is an interesting WOK since it allows for the human sciences to rely on at least some information that can be felt, instead of using high levels of imagination. Even Freud, as wrong as he was, supported his theories on the actions of his patients, meaning that to have credibility in the human sciences, one must account for sense perception. However, sense perception can also get the best of us, especially when the media gets involved. Bertrand Russell once used an analogy of a crate of oranges to describe the public’s perception of foreign countries. Russell states that if one sees a crate of oranges, and the top ones are spoiled, then one infers that all of them must be. Below and hold, race strikes again, especially in court cases. Perhaps the most recent case will be the one of the bus driver in Tennessee. As soon as I saw his picture, I realized, that this would be a car accident in slow motion type ordeal. Most people rarely see any minorities, and usually when they do, it’s on Fox 15, in a negative light. So, when the picture of the bus driver is telecommunicated across the country, some people will say “I knew it!” As for the driver’s innocence, I’m not a lawyer, but I expect there to be some shady maneuvers from both sides in the court room. Now, Sense Perception does aid in communication, for example the metro maps we discussed in class. We concluded that although maps by themselves are art, their purpose makes them not art, since art is about expression, although that’s not to say an artist isn’t expressing himself when they do art, but as Andy Warhol showcased, commercialism can be bring art to its knees. But I digress, instead the map must nonetheless sacrifice accuracy, and focus on what it wants the viewer to know, which we said it does great. Sense perception can lead to both communication victories in the human sciences, but when biases, such as oranges, come into play, its ‘privilege’ comes under fire.

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  12. Alexander Part 3
    Finally, Language, plays a major role not only in the human sciences, but in its relation to other WOKs. There’s a reason why God changed the languages of the builders at the Tower of Babel, yet language is not confined to spoken, or read word. Instead, language both defines and molds the human sciences. On the surface language is required to share information in the human sciences. Perhaps the most important asset researchers in the human sciences have is peer review, as ideas are formed and developed through experts, more than any other fields, since it can prove to be an observational WOK. Law and political science depend on the definitions of language. Such to the extent that loopholes can be found if laws are not worded correctly. For example, when the AIDS epidemic was at its peak, some people would start ‘buyers’ club’ selling memberships for a club, where they got AIDS medications for ‘free,’ since it was illegal to sell the drugs directly. Language allows for other WOK to ‘borrow’ terms from the Human sciences. Infamously, “Invisible Hand” from An Investigation into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith. It is used in history, usually Marxist revisionism and is perhaps wrongly applied, as it could be used ironically in Smith’s works. Language, does affect the fields within the Human sciences, but with varying degrees. In fields, such as anthropology, Incan quipus may look like jewelry, but is the method of communication, so language can create a bias that only words can be language, which is not true. In other fields, such as law, language is a key point. Language is a silent killer in the human sciences, but appreciation for it can prevent accidents and allow for clear communication. And yes, maps are language, and due to this, it can be hard to decipher maps that are from different locations, only adding to the burden language can be, but also showing us how flexible human communication can be.

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  13. Alexander Part 4
    With respects to memory, the human sciences can suffer especially when doing observational studies that require remembering. This causes memory to be a key focus in certain fields in the human sciences. In Law, memory is usually disavowed; witness testimonies, such as those in the cotton case, show us time and time again that memory in the human sciences can be risky to include results, unless the observation is about memory. However, in communication, it creates a disconnect between an affidavit and what a person remembers. For example, telling someone their memory is faulty, makes it seem like a personal attack. The reason memory is not the best WOK in the human science, is because it itself is overshadowed by language, sense perception and emotion. Overall, memory should be furthered studied in the human sciences, but should not be taken at face value. However, the main benefit to memory is that it allows people to further unlock how our minds work in the human sciences, such that new memories can be created from scratch.
    Imagination, plays a huge role in the developmental human sciences, but overall not really required in observational studies. Instead imagination can suffer from gap filling influenced through other WOK such as Sense perception. Further, imagination can’t be exactly felt through the senses. Instead imagination, benefits the human sciences by finding ways for communication, such as developing infographics and the metro maps. However, imagination could be influenced by emotion and memory. However, it could be argued that philosophy is the work of imagination, such to the extent that it can’t be left for granted. Allegories, and even stories like the create of oranges create metaphors for common problems that should be solved. However, metaphors suffer from language misinterpretation and biases. Ergo, imagination is can be useful for interpretations of how to solve our problems, but can lead to miscommunication, and could very well led for more to be desired from it.

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  14. Alexander Last Part
    Faith, is not only religious, and should be extent as ‘hope’ whether it be religious, or political, or even having faith that the Redskins will win the next game. However, faith can lead to fallacies, such as the gambler’s fallacy, which is when a person has faith on something that hasn’t occurred to occur, solely on the basis that it hasn’t occurred. However, faith is strong in economics. Recently, I saw the movie The Big Short, where many investors had ‘faith’ that the housing bubble would burst. So, they decided to short the market, essentially, to ‘bet’ against the housing market. While it may be intuition, or even reason, it cost money to short the market, and it came to the point where the investors were losing money because the market never crashed. However, they had faith in the bubble burst, and decided to keep losing money until the pay off, even though the odds were against their favor. Ergo, faith can sometimes lead to correct thinking in the human sciences. However, sometimes, having faith, does not necessarily produce results, although scientists have reproduced placebo like effects on patients that ‘pray’ for something to happen. However, is confirmation bias, and it leads to the question over whether scientists should lie to participants even is the results are fruitful. The faith of men is tested daily, but when mixed with the human sciences, results may vary.
    Finally, intuition is almost like faith, more like subliminal reason. It plays a ‘wild card’ role in the human sciences depending on who is using it. One famous trial where the defendant was most likely guilty, is the O.J Simpson trial. Some people still argue that he did the crime, even though proven innocent. However, this intuition could be affected be biases from race, media, and even how O.J dressed and acted during the trial. Intuition can also lead to beneficial decisions made in the human sciences. An example would be the intuition many officers use during their daily routines. However, it is easy for intuition to be mistaken for racism and sexism, and while it can be, it doesn’t mean that someone’s intuition is necessarily incorrect. However, in the Human Sciences, intuition can lead to mob justice and distortions of reality, which breaches the seemingly reasonable undertone intuition can have. For example, a pop science article on business decision stated that women are better at making risky decisions because of something dealing with hormones. While, I don’t subscribe to that school of thought, the intricacies of intuition and how it varies demographic to demographic should be researched more to understand how the human mind works.

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  15. Tamara
    The ways of knowing that are privileged in the human sciences are reason, intuition and emotion. Reason aids in understanding one’s own subjective interpretations and biases. Reason can help us be aware of illegitimate statistical claims.Reasons help people to draw conclusions that are rational from the other ways of knowing. Intuition allows one to make quick decisions based on prior experience, rather than pure reason or logic. Scientists rely on their intuitions and experience due to the uncertainty of science making intuition and judgement essential. Emotion is a part of our perception that occurs involuntarily, and often it can lead us to a viewpoint not considered previously, we must intentionally set aside our emotions to draw unbiased conclusions on data. Emotion can be a basis for knowledge and understanding among a group or community. The other ways of knowing are used in gaining, sharing, and evaluating knowledge in the human sciences. Faith plays a very important role in the way we think and the human sciences involves the law so our faith in a particular religion can influence our perceptions of what is right and wrong. Language has the unique ability to make the same information mean completely different things. There is no single equivalent of the word which makes it hard to translate unless one is familiar with human rights terminology and has considered the context. According to Helleklev (2006), “Swedish belongs to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European family while English and German belong to the West Germanic branch.” The languages have a lot in common, which makes it easier to simply borrow terms from English and German and incorporate them into Swedish. In these cases it is important to know that there are well established equivalents in almost every language and therefore it is important to find the term most commonly used. Sense perception involves perceptual bias which in the human sciences alters the meaning of phenomena as they are being perceived. Bias can influence a person to believe something and to observing certain things which are considered to be important. Past experience from memory changes the experiment and outcome for both the scientist and the subject. Imagination is an important way of knowing in the human sciences for qualitative research both as subject matter and methodology.

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  16. Ethel
    The ways of knowing that are privileged in the human sciences include emotions, sense perception and imagination. The human sciences are questioned to considered sciences because of their lack of concrete data and it focuses on human behaviour. This ties into emotion because human sciences deal with human action and it's predictability which can be unreliable because human behaviour can be affected by their feelings making results invalid and less accurate. How accurate are predictions in human sciences if emotions play such a big role in human action and behaviour? Imagination is also privileged because of its role in human behavior as well. Humans tend to sometimes believe some of the things they imagine are real for example the test performed by the psychologist in Memory hackers where she was able to get the patient to admit they had been in a fight at a younger age which had never happened. This is another factor that adds to the issue of human sciences not being actual science because of the different ways in which it can be biased and the lack of hard quantitative data to support claims. Other ways of knowing can also play a role in the human sciences for example language and sense perception.Language plays a big part in the knowledge we gain and share to others. Language used can be biased in the sense that it can either she'd a positive or negative light on the subject. For example if a student is recounting an altercation between a friend of theirs and another students to a friend, they are more likely to speak in a way that supports their friend and badly about the other student. Sense perception can also be used in the same way. Can we really trust what we see as what really is? And if not them how does this affect the human sciences and the results derived from testimonies and more?.

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  17. The human sciences involves studying and interpreting various human experiences. This means that the ways of knowing that would be most associated with it are reason and perception. When we study human interactions we use our perception reasoning abilities to interpret it and gain knowledge from it. The human sciences can be divided into different areas such as psychology or sociology. One of the most common ways to get information in these disciplines is through observation. Researchers conduct controlled experiments to study human behavior. How this information is interpreted is through however we perceive it. But we use our senses to observe this information in the first place. Reason is also used to interpret our observations. We use our reasoning to determine which relationships in our observations make the most sense. We logically determine which two things have a cause and effect relationship in affecting human behavior. Perception is also very involved in the human sciences because of the large role of observation in gathering knowledge in their area. We use our senses to interpret things, what we hear or see if taken into actual when studying human behavior. Before we begin to even interpret data received sense perception helps us to collect that data.
    While reason and perception can be considered to be the ways of knowing most privileged to the human sciences all of the ways still work together so that we can gain knowledge from the human sciences. We use perception in the initial gathering of information through experimentation. Then our reasoning and emotions affect how we interpret our observations. Language is also involved throughout the acquiring knowledge process in the human sciences. In the experimental part of the human sciences observers often ask their subjects questions. However the words used or the way that the question was asked can affect how the question is going to be answered. This is also true for the answers or when this information is published as different things can be interpreted differently depending on what that specific person thinks of it. This is especially true for when qualitative data is being collected. Qualitative data involves the gathering of more personal information that is more descriptive. This means that the researchers have a lot of influence on the type of answers they will get. As it is very difficult for humans to remain completely subjective language can change how this data is interpreted. There have been many cases where the researchers inability to impartial affected the data. Another way of knowing is that is very involved in the gathering of knowledge in the human sciences is emotion. Again if we look at the investigative process in the human sciences we see that a lot of it involves the gathering of personal and actual human experiences. When we look at personal experiences there are emotions involved. For the researchers interpreting the data their emotions or how they feel about something can also affect what they see. Another way that emotion is connected to the human sciences is looking at the ethical implications for doing an experiment involving humans. For example the UK Porton Down chemical experiments involved thousands are military workers being exposed to mustard and nerve gas. At the time researchers considered it to be ethical because of what was happening in the world. The work was done right after WWI and during WWII when stakes were high. They thought that determining these gases effects was necessary even if it weren't going too far. Emotions can affect our decision making when designing experiments involving humans. While some ways of knowing have a stronger relationship to the human sciences they are all still involved in the process of knowledge formation in this area.

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  18. The ways of knowing that I think are privileged to the Human sciences are language and emotion. In the human sciences, language sets the foundation and allows their to be appropriate differences between the terminology used across various humanities of the Human sciences. The humanities are academic disciplines that study human expressions, ideas and thoughts. The difference in language creates barriers that restrains someone that studies in one humanity from being able to understand what someone that studies in another humanity is referring to. These differences can cause it to be difficult to make connections between two different humanities. Since language in this Area of Knowledge is very specific to the type of human science, convention allows there to be effortless communication between the people that study the same humanity. Another Way of Knowing that is privileged in this area of knowledge is emotion. Human sciences is the study of human interaction and emotion. So human emotions and the way that they react to various situations and conditions is the building block and the reason why the human sciences exist. Emotion in the human sciences is introduced through personal experiences. Personal experiences constitute personal knowledge which affects the human sciences. Incorporating emotion into the human sciences allows for there to be discussions about various social issues like sexism and feminism. In the human sciences ethics is used to evaluate knowledge. New knowledge in the human sciences is gained through experiments that require human participants. Once these experiments are complete the knowledge gained from them are evaluated. The evaluation of the knowledge oftentimes questions the ethics behind the experiments conducted. For example the Guatemalan project is caused many people to question if using human participant “in the name of science” is ethically right. The United States government had to apologize for the experiments on Guatemalan prisoners that involved infecting the prisoners and mental patients with syphilis. Ethics comes into play after the experiment is all said and done. A lot of times the ethical implications are something that the researcher does think about, but decides to ignore because they want to be able to make a scientific advantage and to gain knowledge. The whole idea of “sacrificing one to save many” comes into play when dealing with experiments done for the sake of medicine. Sense perception is a WOK that is used to gain knowledge in the human sciences. In the human sciences sense perception is present in the observation process. Observations during experiments are the way that new knowledge is gained. Sense perception may not be the ideal way for new knowledge to be gained because it opens the door for bias to be introduced into the experiment which may affect the results.


    -Jeneva

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  19. Ways of knowing that are privileged in this AOK are sense perception, reason and emotion. I think these WOKs are privileged in this AOK because when doing case studies and observing you use your sense perception and your reason to conclude what you just observed. The other WOKs such as imagination, memory and language are used in gaining, sharing, and evaluating knowledge in this AOK by we can see the counterclaims with these woks. Also it gives a different point of view.

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  20. The Human sciences deals with the understanding and interpretations of experiences and human behavior, it was originally known as moral sciences and tends to deal with the rational agency, which is a man’s ability to reason, formulate new ideas and principles and being able to abide by them. When discussing the Human sciences; Faith, reason, emotion, sense perception and language are all important in how we perceive this Area of Knowledge. As I stated previously, the Human sciences tend to have multiple ethical implications, Faith and Reason are the two most privileged Ways of knowing in the Human Sciences. Reason is the ability to use logical deductions and often times using these deductions, a person formulates their own belief system or what is referred to as faith. The Human sciences tends to deal with totality of human sciences and its social manifestations. For example, French philosopher Pascal developed the Pascal wager, in which he states that a rational person should live their life as if God exist. Rationality often deals with a person’s values and how reasonable they are in situations. Pascal states that If God exist, the person acquires infinite gains which is luxury time in heaven and if they do believe in him and God turns out not to be real, they have lost nothing. If they don’t believe in him and he tends out to be real, then they have lost everything. The pascal wager provides no basis of reasoning as it’s simply a game being played, it’s practically like a coin toss, whether there is a God or there isn’t. It challenges the human understanding of religion and the belief system and tries to provide solutions in the form of a wager. The scopes of rationality in human behavior comes into play here, Pascal puts faith into question because he states that wherever he looks he sees signs of obscurity, nature does not offer him any sign that shows the existence of God, therefore he left in doubt in the belief of the creator.
    Jefferson(1)

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  21. In terms of gaining, sharing, and evaluating knowledge in this area of knowledge the first way of knowing that comes into play when discussing the Human sciences has to be language and sense perception, language is often related to culture and it’s crucial in how we gain, share and evaluate information and sense perception can often times be affected by language. For the Group 4 Project in Biology for example one of my task is to find the relationship between the educational performance and anemia, the research suggests that the lack of iron in the body leads to language disparities therefore making communication hard for the victims. Yes, this concept has to do with the natural sciences than the human sciences and this has been a long standing debate on distinguishing between the two simple because natural sciences is the study of nature and humans are part of nature but the latter is more narrow. The language disparity here does have multiple ethical implications like the lack support for those suffering from the diseases and their actions, the job of the human sciences is to explain these actions and the behavior of these people. The Human sciences analysis extends from what man is in his positivity which is speaking and living to what enables this same being to know or seek what he/she knows. This is where language and sense perception comes into play as they are vital to man knowing what they know. In business class we often analyze the importance of ethics in organizations, especially multi-national corporations. When McDonalds first expanded to Rome the company was met with a wild amount of protest because the Romans disliked what they were smelling. Apparently McDonald’s created a” significant and constant noise and an unbearable smell of fried fouling the air.” The usage of sense perception here was vital in the behavior of these Romans are they used their sense of smell to acquire this data which led to the protest which is the emotion part. Emotion here was their way of sharing the knowledge. The case was presented in court and the McDonald’s was punished. This Is a prime example of the evaluation of the human behavior as the usage of sense perception led to an emotional reaction which decisions were based on. Language, sense perception, emotion and reason are the most important Ways of knowing when discussing Human sciences simply because the first two are important when sharing and gaining of knowledge with language also being important in evaluating while the last provides the basis and understanding of human actions and the motives behind it.
    Jefferson(2)

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  22. Aniyah
    The ways of knowing that are privileged in Human Sciences are Sense Perception and Reason. Sense perception makes it possible for the AOK, Human Sciences, to perceive the information around us in order to respond and communicate with it, enabling scientists to study behavior which makes up the human sciences. Knowledge is gain via sense perception when scientists record surveys, polls, observations and experiments which helps them evaluate the information they are given in order to come up with finals thoughts or supported conclusions on human behavior. The information gathered from these experiments or studies are based on the public's opinion which how the information is shared. Reason in the Human Sciences aids scientists in comprehending the information gained from their data and the implications behind the results. Reasoning is used in order to explain and evaluate the data and conclusions, helps us answer questions such as "how" and "why" humans behave a certain way. And after reaching the final thought or conclusion scientists are able to publish their findings in order to share the reasoning behind their conclusions with the public.

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  23. Shania
    The ways of knowing I find to be privileged in the Area of knowledge of Human Sciences would first be language. Considering how that the Human Science are a social science communication is very important when it comes to gaining knowledge in this AOK. I feel as tho it is a privilege because its the most obvious and common WOK that could pop up whenever observing a real-life situation. In IB Business we learned a lot about the HR (Human Resources ) Department it was the longest chapter and even in a case had a lot to deal communication between the Employer and the Employee. When analyzing this case study I realized that without language you can't manage a business well. It is one of the most vital key aspect of business as a whole and when looking at all ways of knowing language is the most privileged because it is the one that rhetorically represents communication. The other ways of knowing play a role in gaining , sharing , and evaluating knowledge in this AOK because each one can be related to humans and the social experiences they encounter during their life-span. For instance in a business reason and emotion can go hand in hand in gaining and sharing. One can be emotionally invested in their company to the point where the way they present it to other people reflects their emotion and their passion for what they do. Reason can be utilized in evaluating many aspects of this AOK when it comes to understanding our lifestyle and how we interact and why we do in that way.

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  24. Mariatu

    Other ways of knowing that are privileged in Human Sciences is emotion for example. Emotion is something that that can appeal to human sciences in many ways like in the social sciences. Going in depth in relationships can trigger the need for emotion because our relationships are built by what we feel. Intuition and imagination can be used in order to gain, share, and evaluate knowledge in Human Sciences. For example, if you are a psychologist you have to be able to understand one's meaning behind the things they do. You can study their instincts and how people make decisions in order to gain and share knowledge. With imagination, you can use abstract images to understand what something is thinking about as well. Human Sciences is related to other ways of knowing in order to expand knowledge.

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  25. Emonee
    Human sciences revolve around the knowledge about human beings using the techniques of natural science to a certain extent. Our ways of knowing helps us to gain, share, and evaluate knowledge in Human Sciences. When evaluating emotion and reason, we will be able to understand knowledge we gained from the human sciences. To what extent can emotion and reason influence the interpretation of results in the human sciences? Our perceptions are often controlled by our expectations. When evaluating data, we are often quick to find the biases in results we do not favor or agree upon. We then look for an answer we believe is right which may end up to be incorrect. We often use our emotions in human sciences as wishful thinking when interpreting experimental results. Our wishful thinking consist of the formation of our beliefs and making decisions that are based off of our appeal to a pleasing design instead of facing the actual reality and evidence. Our emotions affect our judgement toward facing reality. In human sciences, reason play a role influencing the data. Reason helps us to draw conclusions and that are rational from the other ways of knowing. Reason and Emotion are interconnected because our emotions can be rational. But, strong emotions can distort our other ways of knowing. It can affect our reasons due to our passionate beliefs that lead to lack of open-mindedness. We can gain knowledge through emotion and reason in the human sciences but it affects our overview of actual reality.

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  26. Human sciences an area of knowledge is a complex one. It melds together both hard sciences like biology with social sciences like history in order to understand human behavior understanding and way of life. Because of the nature of human sciences there are ways of knowing that are “ privileged.” Privileged means the ease of the capability for a way of knowing to be incorporated into the specific area of knowledge. It is a wok that works well with the aok, comes naturally and in many cases works in tangent with the area of knowledge. In human sciences there are two ways of knowings that I would consider privileged: Emotion and intuition.


    Emotion is a way of knowing that is privileged in the area of knowledge human sciences. When it comes to humans emotion is something that is always present. We as humans have an emotional level that cannot be matched. Emotion is something that influences our thinking, the positions we take and the actions we indulgence in. That is why emotion is so privileged in human sciences. For example when looking a psychology and understanding the human mind one relies on emotions to understand what is going on in the mind of a human. Emotions are the elements of happiness or sadness and they are the eternal indicators of what is neurologically and psychologically going on in the brain.


    Intuition is also a way of knowing that is privileged in human sciences. Intuition like emotion is something that is intrinsic in the human body. We are all born with this sense of institution and over the years we learn how to acknowledge this intuition and use it. Human sciences are areas that are not 100% based of of evidence of pure, tangible statistical data. Humans sciences rely on feeling or a person's internal understanding in order to further explicate and examine the wonders of the world. For example, economics is a realm within humans sciences. Economics deals with analysing the patterns and trends of the economy and predicting possible changes. When people get involved in wall street and investing in stocks they use intuition in order to help them make decisions of what to invest in and what not to invest in. This intuition while it is used with other data and information they have gathered is a way of knowing that is always present and that is subconscious in many ways.


    Sense perception is an important way of knowing that is use in order to gain knowledge in the human sciences. Because the human sciences are the study of humans the use of the senses is in many cases necessary in order to gain new knowledge and understanding. For example psychological knowledge is gained in a large part by the studying of subjects and listening to the thoughts and options of a patient. Sense perception is need to make physical observations with your eyes and oral obervations with your ears. Language is also another work that is important in human sciences. The human sciences are very language based and incorporate language in all aspects of understanding. For example in law the languages et forth in the Constitution is something that is very important and is often scrutinized. The constitutionality of things and whether or not the constitution should be interpreted or applied by what is explicitly is all due to the different in language and how people break down language. Language more so helps us in the understanding of human sciences because it is what helps question the knowledge we gain for human sciences.

    Jasmine










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  27. Jenifer

    Human science is a science corresponding to humanities and social science but also incorporates aspects from psychology and mathematics in order to study the human behavior. Because this field is a study on human behavior it requires observational study meaning that our sense perception is required as sight falls under this category.
    Other WOKs such as language can be used in order to share this information through colleagues within this field as science typically builds off other findings or try to counter them. Language allows other scientist in this field to use acquire experimental observations that will assist them in evaluating their own research. An experiment we did in Biology class required us to take observational notes on the rise in foam when combining two substances together. At first the foam rose significantly up however the next two trials there was little to no foam rise. Our group assumed that we did something wrong so we asked other groups what their results were. Comparing our results to several other groups it was evident that we all were having the same issue meaning that it wasn’t because of something we did but an issue with possibly the materials given. By using language we were able to communicate our findings with one another and realize that we had the similar results further strengthening our argument that it wasn’t something that we messed up method wise but an issue with the substances given. This is done in many other fields such as literature when readers come together and speak on themes or their interpretation of books and how they perceive it when they read it. By doing this a more universal look starts to form as the information given starts to morph into our thought process, changing our view on a scene in the book to what was said. Language is an essential tool with human science to communicate information as well as share and gain new findings that will also change our thought process and morph it into a new approach in the study of human behavior.

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  28. Claire
    In the Human Sciences, there are several ways of knowing that can benefit from its various disciplines or studies. The Human sciences seeks to identify generalizations of subjects such as, economic and social activity, cultural similarities, psychological behavior and or thought, which often involve the use of ways of knowing due to its goal of providing a precise description of why and how human beings are across populations. These ways of knowing can include anywhere from sense perception, emotion, and language to reason. With sense perception, it involves our responses or interpretations of what our senses tell us, which can be applied to the psychological study of human science due to its involvement of interpreting the development, perspective, social, and cognitive changes in human behavior. When we make certain judgments on how our observations are interpreted, it can use sense perception to assist in predicting what exactly might happen or happened. Human sciences also include the characteristics of map making. These maps often represent a generalized view that may exclude certain features, which can be influenced by our sense perception and how we initially interpreted the map. When studying human beings, we must consider the cultural differences in the actions of others. These cultural differences can include the use of emotion as we they may often get in the ways of how we interpret what we are seeing. Scientist often must develop methods that allow them to reduce the effect of personal response on their observations of human behavior. As for language, it is used to make up concepts that often influence our thoughts and actions, which is a part of human behavior and what is interpreted. Language is used by scientist to understand and communicate the observations made. So each study of the human sciences, whether it be anthropology, psychology, economics, sociology, human geography or political sciences use at least one or more of the ways of knowing to communicate and or identify the observations found.

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  29. Beltine
    We live in a very small world, A world where one person's decision can impact an entire generation. As humans we seek for happiness, love and prosperity, in most cases, the only way to achieve this is through tranquility and many other ways. The study of human interaction and actions is known as Human Science. The study of human science consist of the social interactions and behavior amongst humans. Through human science and Social science, scientist seek for ways to improve the relationship between humans.
    Language and emotion benefit the most from this AOK than other ways of knowing because they are the main means of communication among most humans. During the teaching of the AOK, I was given an article to read about Social Science research. In this article people from all over the world were interviewed and they were asked to stated issues they had within their community. Issues ranged from police brutality and interactions with people, societies treatment towards the elderly, economy, government officials etc. Through these questions scientist were looking for solution to improve human conditions. Language in this case was used as a form of expression and communication, it gave people the opportunity to speak their truth and speak on behalf of those who couldn’t. One person can’t find the solution to a universal problem, it takes the input of many to do so. Emotion played a role in the questioning because the interviewee chose to speak on issues they were passionate about and issues they felt needed attention. If you have no feeling towards something or someone it would mean you don’t care and to a certain extent you have no opinion. These two ways of knowing contribute the most towards improving human conditions and seeking for solutions.
    The other ways of knowing such as reason, faith and intuition are factors that contribute more explaining the reason why human science and social science is important. Reason tells us the purpose of human science and what we hope to accomplish out of it. Faith tells us the possible outcome and what we should look forward to during and after taking action. Intuition tells us if we feel good or bad about the impact the research will and has had on people. They all serve a support systems for Human science.

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  30. Efi

    The ways of knowing in the AOK of human sciences are language, reason, emotion, intuition and sense perception.
    The other WOKs also assist in gaining, sharing and evaluating knowledge in this AOK. These AOKs are faith, memory and imagination. Faith is used to gain knowledge in the AOK of human sciences because it can be used to decide our positions on things that'll have some effect on how we gain knowledge. Take the law for instance, one's faith plays a large part in the laws because faith usually helps one differentiate from right to wrong. Knowledge is gained by being aware of the law, which is largely based on ones faith. Continuing with the example of law, faith is used to share knowledge in the human sciences because the law is something that is set in stone for a particular area. Laws are often written down and thought, which is a method of sharing knowledge. Furthermore, faith and the law is also used to evaluate knowledge. One way could be in court, the laws are brought up, but the faith of those in the court (jury, defendant, judge, etc.) could play a role in the outcome of the trai, because their faith affects how they evaluate the law. As in "The Stranger", it's against the law to kill, yet Meursault not having a faith annoyed people and probably also contributed to his unfortunate fate.
    Memory is used in gaining, sharing and evaluating knowledge in the human sciences. One way is through the science of psychology. An example would be how psychiatrist rely on the memory of their patients to gain an understanding of how their psyche works (and humans in general) or what events/changes have caused a certain change in them. The sharing aspect occurs when the patient is literally sharing what they remember from their past (sometimes many years in the past)and what they think to their psychiatrist. Through this process, the physiatrist is able to gain an understanding of what their patient is going through and evaluate the information presented (from the patient's memory)to determine the cause of the issue(s) and what, if any, medications need to be provided.
    Knowledge is gained, shared and evaluated by imagination through philosophy. Philosophy consists of many ideas and theories that have the potential to help us understand more about ourselves and our surroundings. Imagination plays a role in how philosophical knowledge is gained. The philosopher Alfred Whitehead had to use some imagination to create process philosophy, that deals with the metaphysical and argues that our world is made up of process, and not actual objects. Of course he couldn't actually see these processes, so a bit of imagination has to be used. This knowledge is shared across multiple disciplines. His idea of process philosophy is now used in many disciplines, such as ecology, theology, education, physics, biology, economics, and psychology. Because a part of this process is based on imagination, it's evaluated (in philosophy & other areas) keeping both imagination in mind and the reasoning behind the process in mind. With philosophy, a lot of the actual thinking/theories have to have some aspect of imagination.

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  31. Hannah

    Two ways of knowing I feel are privileged in the human science area would be sense perception and ethics. Sense perception is one of the most used ways of knowing as the senses are what allow us to fully observe information given to us as humans. This applies to not only human sciences, but the area of knowledge entirely as it deals with the need to observe results you conclude and create further implications of this new information. As human sciences deals with studying and interpreting human behavior, observing with our sensory skills is the most useful way to grasp revealed knowledge. For example, psychologists use their auditory and visual senses when speaking with their clients in order to grasp information needed outside from the literal words being said. They may say a word or bring up a memory in order to get an emotional response or reaction from the person; indicating there is sensitivity in the topic and further implications are made. They see the facial expression it brought to the person and hear the possible cracking of their voice or loss for words. Using the senses to carefully observe these people is what allows them to gain information without actually accessing their mind, just through their behavior. Without these sensory skills it may be hard to fully analyze and grasp meaning of what is presented to us to observe. In reference to ethics, one main use of this is in the area of social sciences. In experimental studies, ethics must be put in place in order to ensure that results are not compromised from outside factors. This means that moral integrity must be implemented in the experimental process to ensure validity of the research. This could include the need for the researcher to refrain from building a personal relationship with the participants of their study, as this may hinder not only the information being presented from this participant but also the observations made from the feedback and judgement in the research. It could also include the need for the researches to sensitively disclose information about the project to the participants because if even one word is taken negative by them, it could hinder the information provided to the researchers; making it invalid and useless. There are many arguments against ethics in social science experiments, however without ethics in this area and human sciences as a whole, validity of information and observations are heavily questioned as anything can be said out of anger or fear of the participant. Two ways of knowing that are used in gaining, sharing, and evaluating knowledge in human sciences include memory and language. As personal experiences shape a vast part of memory, this is heavily used in the evaluation process of the presented knowledge. Personal knowledge is bound to interfere with the implications one makes on information shown through studying humans. Knowledge gained from experiences is retrieved and applied on observing what is learned from human behavior as we have an unconscious tendency to attempt to always make sense of things as we find comfort in understanding. We use what we know and what we remember from our own experiences to make sense of these ideas presented and observations made. For instance when you were about 5 years old it is more than likely that you got hurt at one point and began to cry. Our memory of pain is linked to the given reaction to cry so when you are studying one in pain and you see them begin to cry, your mind has already made sense of this as you know that crying is a normal reaction to pain. Since these personal experiences place permanent knowledge in our minds, when evaluating human behavior we use these many experiences to seek implications of what the given information means or says about the person or group of people.

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  32. Hannah (2)

    Language plays a prominent role in evaluating, gaining, and sharing knowledge in human sciences. The study of human behavior is evidently universal, therefore, the way that knowledge is transferred as well perceived may alter from person to person. The way something is said has the ability to alter how one takes this information. The tone of one’s voice and the specific words one uses can make or break an investigation in a study. If a participant or even a researcher takes something the wrong way or in a way unintended by the provider, it alters the observations made, often in a negative way. This in turn can lessen the validity of the conclusions drawn because the knowledge gained was altered by the false perception of language. On the other hand, language can have a positive effect on information transferred as it may be beneficial to hear someone explain something rather than simply jumping to conclusions from their actions. For example, often times in court cases, defendant's actions may seem utterly unreasonable or sane, however they have the chance to explain themselves verbally which can provide clarity and understanding on the reasoning for their actions and positively affect the outcome. Language is an important way of knowing when observing and evaluating human behavior because the sensitivity of language is so unique that it must be carefully transferred from one person to another to ensure validity and understanding of knowledge presented and conclusions drawn.

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  33. Brea
    Human Sciences: Sense Perception and Reason are the two "privileged" Ways of knowing in this AOK. Reason is valued as the Human Sciences tend to be centered more on facts and examples through experiences (Such as hypothetical examples of an experiment). With Reason, Human Sciences can be validated not through mathematical data, but more through explanation. Sense perception is valued because it centers around the reactions of humans in science. (Example: Your nose smelling where food is coming from during an experiment). With Sense Perception, Human Sciences can show the changes in the body that occur through the senses when something is being stimulated. Memory plays a role in how Human Science Knowledge is spread. Memory allows us to remember partial bits of information (Even if slightly off track) to get the full picture. Human Science is based around experiences, and memory is included in the information stored when you are creating that experience with Sense perception.Memory also evaluates Sense Perception by going back to the experience and re-evaluating how a particular sense felt. (Example: an old woman recalling the scent of her wedding day bouquet.) while Memory helps share and store this experience, it can distort or enhance it as time goes on. Emotion also contains value in the Human Sciences as it works with how a person feels during the time of stimulation. Emotion and Memory can both play a role in Altering the experience or study in Human Sciences, due to how they change over time. Imagination can play a huge role in the Human Sciences. As not every Human Science experiment or concept can be tested without harm being done to the patient, Imagination can help attempt to create the concept of the idea that is being gained. (Hypothetically explaining how a disease is spread, instead of showing it on a human.)Imagination helps Human Sciences by explaining rational concepts without having to physically apply it. While Imagination and Memory together can alter how a person perceives an experience by creating false realities, separately they are beneficial to Human Sciences by creating examples of these experiences and showing how it is applied, if it can't be done physically.

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  34. Mabel
    With human science, the ways of knowing that are most used in this area are sense perception and language. Since human science is essentially the investigation of human interactions and activity obtained through impartial observation of sensory experience, our senses are a necessary tool in order for us to investigate our human activity and gain knowledge through that. Language allows us to be able to share and evaluate knowledge that we gained through sense perception, amongst one another. It allows uncomplicated communication between the people that study the same and different concepts under the scope of human science. If information is gathered and shared amongst one another, solutions to problems we face may become more transparent. With social science for example, this area of knowledge is used to improve human conditions. So if people who study a form of human science such as economist, can look into different aspects of a specific problem, then come together with an open mind to develop theories that explain observed facts that affect the overall problem

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Thanks for posting!!

Swift