Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Follow-Up Project Implicit Results: Due by next class after Labor Day

ARTICLE READINGS & WEBSITE (Choose 2-3)


ACTIVITY: Blog Post (drop down menu: anonymous; 1st name only)
What are the implications of the tests, your results, and the articles?

Implications can focus on the following:
Data
Relationship to Reason
Biases, Labels, & Stereotypes
Experimentation in Human Sciences

67 comments:

  1. Priscilla
    As we discussed in class, we all have implicit bias. It might not be something we realize but it’s there. When I got my results stating that “I have a strong automatic preference for thin people than fat people”, I was a bit mad but after a while I realized that it’s true because most of my friends can be considered thin. Reading article 1 and 2, it talked about how scientist are trying to find a “cure” for implicit bias but in a way I believe that it’s impossible. It’s called implicit for a reason; its unconscious and even though we realize it, I don’t think it’s that easy to change. In the sense perception chapter it talked about how our brain blocks out information we don’t like. No matter how hard we try to be unbiased, there is always going to be one aspect that doesn’t because we are humans and in some way that’s how we are wired, as article 2 stated, “our brain only retains the information we want to learn”. Some blacks are racist to other blacks, even Obama’s score suggest that he has a “strong automatic preference to European Americans over Black Americans”, our implicit bias is fed by our sense perception. If you are black, you probably live in a community with mostly Blacks and you witness things that affect your bias like gang activity, drug use. Your parents will probably say” I don’t want you hanging out with those children, they are bad” with all of these information and facts around you it difficult to not have implicit bias. Even if scientist were able reduce the rate of implicit bias, how do we know it won’t increase again. You are still living in the same community, witnessing the same things and receiving the same advice. We always think that racism is about minorities being looked down on but what we don’t realize is that some of the minorities are the ones being racist against themselves. As humans we all prefer something better and we usually don’t think of ourselves as better but someone else. We can’t just simply deactivate our implicit biases, we are always going to have it but as article 1 stated, it’s like breaking a habit. You have to realize when you are doing it, ask yourself “how is my action going to affect this person” because one’s action or words can make or break someone especially teachers. (Article 1). To reduce our implicit bias, we have to keep working on it because unless you are able to change your culture, your community and the information around you, we have to realize that implicit bias is something we can’t depart with.

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    1. Priscilla
      My results to the IAT implicit test was that “I have a strong automatic preference for thin people than fat people” but trying hard to make the test bias made it even more bias because the test started with thin associating with good items and after we had gotten used to it, it change. My question is why didn’t fat start out being associated with good things? Because if it were the scores would definitely be different. It’s difficult to make an instantaneous change if you are used to something for a while. This how we are always going to be bias even the machines and programs that we invent but implicit bias doesn’t necessarily be negative, it also has its positive aspect. Having implicit bias ensures that we acknowledge the prejudices that we have, even the subtle ones. Implicit bias also allows us to acknowledge the social division between our societies, whether it’s by gender, race, sexuality etc because somethings can’t change, there are always going to be some jobs that are more male oriented and no matter how many feminist s rise up to speak against it doesn’t change anything. There are always going to be some people who are the exception but for the most part it’s not going to change and I think that having this implicit bias puts in perspective even though we might want to agree with it. I think some comments about the test would different in a case where blacks are preferred over whites in the race test. Many blacks would think this test is incorrect because it was “against” blacks (article 3) but these reaction would different if people preferred blacks and associated good words with blacks instead of whites. Most the articles talked about implicit bias has been something that has always been there since the beginning time so how does it work with critics, whether its food, art, literature? They also have implicit bias so how does that work? A food critic gives his criticism of a restaurant and people either eat at that restaurant or don’t, some people wouldn’t visit a restaurant unless some food critic thinks that it’s the “best restaurant ever”. Obviously the food critic has some kind of implicit bias whether it’s based on the food they serve or the chef. Maybe the critic prefers Italian to Indian food because of a certain incident that occurred when he was in India so he writes a bad critic about the Indian place and people choose to accept that critic. What is the difference between this bias and that of race? They are both implicit bias; unconscious bias about people and things but one is acceptable and the others isn’t. People can argue that the food critic has freedom of speech but when it comes to race, it’s a whole new situation.
      To what extent does an event affect how one’s implicit bias is viewed?

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  2. ETHEL
    The implicit bias test measures the attitudes and beliefs that people sometimes do not want to show. It shows people results about their biases that they did not know about. During the test participants are asked to group two things into two categories twice and then the words bad and good are placed into both categories and are then switched for the final part of the test. The credibility of the test can definitely be questioned because of the uncertainty of the data. Before the test begins, test takers take surveys which include questions that relate to the topic selected and this introduces bias because this data can then be used to make conclusions about the results of the test. The results are apparently reached from how fast the test taker grouped the faces or the words good or bad to a category however this in itself is a fallacy because it is jumping to conclusions. There is no certain correlation between the test takers grouping one category faster than the other because of their implicit bias. In the article “Does the Implicit Association Test (IAT) Really Measure Racial Prejudice? Probably not,” researchers found that with the IAT test, people mostly associated themselves with the in-group rather than race. In other terms when positive words were grouped with their in-group for example ‘good’ and Dutch names, test takers responded faster than they did when good was ‘group’ with Moroccan names. This is very similar to my results on the presidents and skin color test where my results show that I had an automatic preference for Barack Obama than the other white presidents. My second test however got me really thinking about how biased the test was because after taking the first test I was already used to the game and when I started the second test it was easier for me to trick the system. I intentionally went slower and faster when I wanted to and my results showed that I had a moderate preference for light skin over dark skin people. The foundation for the test is biased as well because before it begins the test taker has to answer some questions about their demographics which to me already categorize you and so the results are almost predictable. With the skin tone test I was asked what skin tone I preferred and another important thing I noticed was that when you tried to categorize some of the pictures or words it would tell you your answer was wrong. This defeats the whole purpose of determining your preference if the test is already designed to be answered a certain way. The IAT test also made me think of how the results could be different if there was a third category or if the groupings could be done three times. This way it is fair because the second time when the groupings are switched I went slower because I was already used to grouping ‘e’ for ‘good’ and ‘i’ for ‘bad’ and as a result basing the results from the time used to group is not valid for all participants. Like the author Theodore r. Johnson of the article “Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias”, I was able to get different results and as he mentioned when you retake the test over and over again you can eventually recognize your implicit bias.

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    1. Ethel

      The IAT test results can be considered to jump to conclusions based on its requirements. Before taking the test, participants are asked to either do a demographics survey or other questions that relate to the topic of the test they are taking. This to me already creates the bases for the results to be biased because there is no need to do a demographics survey in order to test my preference for barack obama or other white presidents. This seemed like there was already a set way my results were going to turn out. Additionally there was no certain correlation between the test takers grouping one category faster than the other because of their implicit bias. The rate at which people answer to the questions would obviously change because the categories have changed and they had already been accustomed to answering with e and i for the first categories before they were changed. Basing the results on the speed changes can be a biased way because it could be different for different people and makes the results predictable. If one were to willingly slow down and go faster for a certain category then the results would show they had a preference for the category they went faster on. Despite this the IAT is still a good method for determining implicit bias. It brings out the parts of people they would not immediately consider. The IAT test results makes it hard for participants to find it credible because it challenges their view points. One of my implicit bias test showed that I had a strong preference for light skin over dark skin people which was basically another way of saying I am biased against dark skin people. This was shocking if not funny as I am dark skin myself. As hard as it was to learn about my implicit bias, it was understandable because that's what implicit bias is - an unconscious action. If my results showed that I secretly had a preference for light skin over dark skin people, does that indicate that I hate my skin color? the article “Black on black racism: The hazards of implicit bias” shows that racism does not only happen to black people but through them as well. Most participants were riled up about their results because it made them seem either racist, biased or stereotypical. If my results had shown that I had a preference for dark skin people over lightskin people, how would that change my reaction? I think I would be more accepting to the IAT test and the accuracy of the results. It is common in our nature that we easily act out against something if it isn’t in support of our views. For example in the stranger meursault is on trial not necessarily because he murdered the arab but because he did not fit into society’s norms like feeling remorse for his mother’s death or loving Mary. As humans we do not realize when we are unconsciously biased towards other regardless of if they are a part of our ingroup or not.

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  3. Aakilah
    When participating in Project Implicit I took two test, one of them was the gender-career test. My test result was that I have a “moderate automatic association” with male and career and female with family. I was very surprised with my test results because I don't feel that I actually feel this way as I am a woman and support feminism. But upon reading the articles I learned that most people also got this result regardless of their gender or what they think are their beliefs. I probably do have unconscious prejudices whether I want to admit it or not. I think my results were so upsetting because of what it means for as woman who also grew up around working women. I also intend to also be a working woman and so the biases that I have feel aren't appropriate because they have implications for myself.
    The other test I took was the one focusing on skin tone and my result for that was that I had little to no preference between light skin and dark skin. I think that I got this result because light skin and dark skin mean something else to me. As I am black I see light skin as a little tone of brown and dark skin as dark brown but in the test light skin meant white skin and dark skin meant black. When reading the article about black-on-black biases I noticed something that stood out which was most of the black participants were either pro-white or pro-black and feel this describes me. I feel that unlike most test takers I have a more negative perception about people with lighter skin than darker skin. This also brings another point in the article that I agree with is that we bring some biases to our own community. This is something I regularly see in school and on social media black people criticizing or encouraging harmful stereotypes on themselves. Sometimes I remember family members telling me not to dress or speak a certain way when around white people even though these people wouldn't admit that they have preferences for a white ideal. I think that this Implicit Project helps us to be honest with ourselves and admit that we have biases that we need to work on.

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    1. Aakilah
      When I took the Implicit Bias test my result for the test regarding skin color was that I had little to no preference between light skin and dark skin. While this didn't shock me because I am black the article discussed many possible implications for this. Something that is heavily discussed in implicit bias is how it affects police brutality. But implicit biases can also affect other aspects of the criminal justice system. Many times whether we want to admit it or not we have negative stereotypes or beliefs about a group of people that affect how we view them. This is why the Department of Justice has even have begun mandatory training to prevent implicit biases from affecting the criminal justice system and the disproportion between conviction amounts and lengths for race. Implicit bias is important to discuss because of how much it affects us. Studies have found that implicit biases began to form as early as 6 year old and are reinforced throughout our lives. They influence our decisions such as who we socialize with. We tend to socialize or date with people of our same race or religion. We also tend to not choose to live in communities where the demographics are completely different than ourselves. Another aspect of this is we tend to identify people by the things that make them different even though we aren't trying to single them out. We apply labels to them based on their sexuality or race just because it is human nature to try to identify them by their most distinctive trait. But these labels may be biased as they tend to focus on some social quality such as sexuality or race. Implicit bias may be unconscious and cause people to say they have no biases but their actions and attitudes towards certain things show something else.
      After reading the Invisible Man in IB Literature we discussed whether dealing with racism was worse in the South or the North.The obvious answer would be the South because the racism is more outright and visible. But I felt that it could actually be worse in the North because the expectation is that there isn't racism, but people there still have racist beliefs they just aren't as out front with it. This means that racism affects you in different more subtle ways such as through institutionalized and systematic racism and discrimination. So you are promised more freedom and acceptance but you never actually get it because people still have unconscious biases and racism still affects black people in the North even if it does it indirectly. However implicit biases doesn't have to be permanent and can be changed. Combating unconscious biases can be done through recognizing these biases, and becoming exposed to people outside of who you usually interact with. Project Implicit focuses on getting people to actually recognize that they have implicit biases and what they are.

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  4. Ethel
    The implicit bias test measures the attitudes and beliefs that people sometimes do not want to show. It shows people results about their biases that they did not know about. During the test participants are asked to group two things into two categories twice and then the words bad and good are placed into both categories and are then switched for the final part of the test. The credibility of the test can definitely be questioned because of the uncertainty of the data. Before the test begins, test takers take surveys which include questions that relate to the topic selected and this introduces bias because this data can then be used to make conclusions about the results of the test. The results are apparently reached from how fast the test taker grouped the faces or the words good or bad to a category however this in itself is a fallacy because it is jumping to conclusions. There is no certain correlation between the test takers grouping one category faster than the other because of their implicit bias. In the article “Does the Implicit Association Test (IAT) Really Measure Racial Prejudice? Probably not,” researchers found that with the IAT test, people mostly associated themselves with the in-group rather than race. In other terms when positive words were grouped with their in-group for example ‘good’ and Dutch names, test takers responded faster than they did when good was ‘group’ with Moroccan names. This is very similar to my results on the presidents and skin color test where my results show that I had an automatic preference for Barack Obama than the other white presidents. My second test however got me really thinking about how biased the test was because after taking the first test I was already used to the game and when I started the second test it was easier for me to trick the system. I intentionally went slower and faster when I wanted to and my results showed that I had a moderate preference for light skin over dark skin people. The foundation for the test is biased as well because before it begins the test taker has to answer some questions about their demographics which to me already categorize you and so the results are almost predictable. With the skin tone test I was asked what skin tone I preferred and another important thing I noticed was that when you tried to categorize some of the pictures or words it would tell you your answer was wrong. This defeats the whole purpose of determining your preference if the test is already designed to be answered a certain way. The IAT test also made me think of how the results could be different if there was a third category or if the groupings could be done three times. This way it is fair because the second time when the groupings are switched I went slower because I was already used to grouping ‘e’ for ‘good’ and ‘i’ for ‘bad’ and as a result basing the results from the time used to group is not valid for all participants. Like the author Theodore r. Johnson of the article “Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias”, I was able to get different results and as he mentioned when you retake the test over and over again you can eventually recognize your implicit bias.

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  5. Alexander Part 1
    In the movie 12 Angry Men, 12 jurors have to acquit a young Hispanic boy for murder. As the film rolls, we soon discover that all the jurors have biases, both explicit and implicit that affect the struggle in making the decision. The movie was made in 1957, and still resounds to this day. We all have biases, and many are not harmful. However, when we are faced with choices such as the one above, those biases can affect rational decision making in negative ways. I took three tests in the Project Implicit Website. I took the president one, because I am admittedly biases towards the history test, the Race test, because I knew it was going to be the one everyone would take, and the Arab Muslim, test because I feel that just like black people, negative stereotypes are ensured by communities and media. The results were as follows: For the president test, it turns out I have a positive attitude towards Barack Hussein Obama. For the race test, it turns out I associate black people negatively. Lastly, it turns out that I am indifferent about Arabs/Muslims. One thing I noticed is that I feel in the majority category every time. The tests and the results have many implications and ramifications. First of all, I expected every result, except for the one of race. I wasn’t exactly shocked, but I found the result fascinating. Why is it that although both Blacks and Arab/Muslims are portrayed negatively in our culture, that most people feel indifferent about Arab/Muslims, yet negatively towards blacks?
    Stereotypes are a sort of fallacy. They group people to together, from the actions or ideas of a few. For example, a couple of pirates may have a parrot on their shoulder, but not all pirates have a parrot on their shoulder. In the article “So Now You Flunked a Racism Test: Now What?” a new experiment, seems to change biases while one sleeps. I don’t want to call it brainwashing, but its most definitely brainwashing. The implications of the test are that people will believe that what the test tells them is correct. A self-fulfilling prophecy of sorts. One may look at the results, see that they have Black people and go “now that I think about it, I do hate Black people.” Others will go “Why I love Black People?!” and others may even say “Wait a minute, I’m black myself!” Perhaps the identity lies on what we hate. Some truly do hate black people just because they are black. Others, hate the way the media portrays them, and in result trickles down into the results of the test. For example, there will always be that one person, that either does it ironically or seriously, that acts like a stereotype. In a way it reminds me of Trueblood and the way he is portrayed. Staying in the stereotype, because that what people expect from you, and they may even feel sorry.

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  6. Alexander Part 2
    However, there may be hope, as the “Black-on-Black Racism” article entails. By acknowledge one’s bias, only then can one actively go out their way to correct their misdoings. For example, I find myself doing things because I subconsciously wanted to do it anyways, a sort of memory that I only remember once I get there. No, I do not need brain surgery, but I fully realize what I’ve done, after I’ve done it. I read this story once about a man who would frisk people at a club, and finally realized that he only frisked black people, even though he was sure that he frisked others as well. Here we see bias affecting the way memory themselves are stored and replayed. In relation to reason, the biases we exhibit can be intentionally used in the form of fallacies to confirm one’s actions. A mental ‘realpolitik’ which allows the person to know it is wrong, and use it anyways because they need a reason, even if it wrong. For example, Muslims, commit terrorism, therefore we must deport them all, and I know it’s not all of them but whatever. It plays in part with obedience to authority. Authority through biases allows people to commit actions they wouldn’t have committed otherwise, because one, responsibility no longer lies in their hands, and two, they are justified through faulty reasoning.
    Maybe, the implications are too ambitious. “Does the IAT Really Measure Racial Prejudice? Probably not.” Tells us. The article states that it is more about in and out groups and even cites scientific articles that I can’t access. It does bring up a good point however, that perhaps the brains ability to “exert cognitive control” may be the cause of the results. However, I will say this, I found it harder to distinguish the Black faces from the White faces. The test is hard to follow at first, and it seems that people get the score they feel represents them after doing the test over and over. This can be either to confirmation bias, or due to the way the test is formatted. Honestly, I don’t believe a test online, or for that fact anywhere can test our implicit biases. We could be conditioned to reduce them, as in the sleep experiment, but in the end, biases will exist as long as we don’t acknowledge them. I don’t know if there is a test, or if there will ever be one. If the bias is truly implicit, then perhaps it can never be tested. As the reason chapter shows, logic is not always reasonable. The test seems to follow a logic system, which in return may result in results that are result of a computer making correlations based on common data. This may be why most people fall in the categories they do. Implicit biases exist, and the test may be truthful to a degree, but in reality, we can never be sure until we face decisions that test our minds. And from there, we can only acknowledge, correct, and pass down what reduces a bias that has existed for a long time, and only now can we change that for future generations.

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    1. After dealing with the memory chapter, I've learned much about the way memory is stored and replayed in our brains. In relation to the bouncer who would find himself remembering that he only frisked black people, it was not due to bad intentions but instead to the biases of not having biases. For example, one can go out of their way to not be 'racist' so much that they end up being racist anyways. With the bouncer, it could be that he memorized black people the most because seeing of people is more memorable if you're white. For example, if you don't have much contact with people from different places, then the first person you do come in contact sets up an example for the rest of them. This is a way the brain can easily retrieve memory and faces. The brain dumps memories together so that they become categorized on characteristics. This may happen for every memory, but depending on the emotions and senses that a person receives during the event. The bouncer showcases both memories strongest suit and weakest suit. By remembering that he was frisking mostly black people he showcases the way the brain stores memories. However, he just payed attention to them because they might be 'different' in his every day life. Also, the bouncer can now take that memory and change his ways if he truly regretted it. Perhaps the brain attaches to a memory to make us realize the way we are expected to act versus the way we did act, but once it is retrieved and restored over and over, and since every time retrieval happens the memory is created again, the bouncer ironically bounced himself.

      Finally, in relation to computers and logic, we come to the conflict that since a computer follows a logical system, it bases results on algorithms it knows. For example, there was a microsoft experiment on twitter that resulted in an A.I turning into a neo nazi. The twitter bot was made so that humans who talked with it would not know it's a bot. However, it quickly got brigaded by trolls and began to tweet things like "Hitler did nothing wrong." The test turned from a response test to an echo chamber of pure buffoonery. However, the microsoft bot was meant to pass a simple test called the turing test. In essence, if a computer can pass the turing test, then when a human being talks with it, the human can not tell that it is not an A.I. A good movie that showcases this experiment is Ex Machina. In the movie, a scientist creates the A.I that seems to pass the test, by owning a google like search engine, where everybody's searches, desires, and ideas are analyzed by this A.I. However, the A.I turns out to watch out for itself rather than showcase real human emotions. In relation to the test, I feel that the correlation between previous data and experiments show as these is that they ignore the emotional aspects that such tests may have, and instead they categorize people into previous responses. What if an authoritarian regime decided to test its citizens on whether or not they like their leader, and the test results said no? Could we entrust an A.I as president. Movies such as 2001: A space odyssey showcase A.I as only looking look for its created purpose. But haven't these movies made us bias against A.I. How could this affect reactions once humans make an A.I that can pass the turing test? Clearly, these tests only warrant more investigation. Another example I would like to bring up is the fact that humans can imagine. As I've learned from the project I did, humans can imagine things based on what they sense and what biases they have, among many things. Comment part 1 Alexander

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    2. Biases can have a strong influence on what people in imagine, and in return, have a strong influence on what people remember. Perhaps a more abstract test could showcase biases better than a simple click here test. This is because imagination, like memory, rely more on all the other ways of knowing, than say sense perception to a degree. With an abstract test, people could use their imagination to not showcase any biases they have, but perhaps also come to a solution on how to solve them as well.

      Comment part 1.5 Alexander

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  7. Jody

    My first IAT test concluded that I have a slight automatic preference for light skin compared to dark skin after I took the Skin Tone IAT. I wasn’t very surprised at this result because it is true, I do prefer light skin in comparison to dark skin. Therefore, I knew that this result highlighted my own bias. However, I was a bit surprised at my second IAT result which said that I have a slight automatic preference for young people compared to old people. However, I had to question these results because how can I be sure this result is true and completely unbiased when I am constantly and on a daily basis surrounded by young people. This is probably where implicit bias plays a major role since according to article 4, the IAT test deals with automatic association and the results are due to one’s in-group/out-group membership. Therefore, since I automatically associate myself with young people rather than old people since it is my in-group, I have come to the conclusion that my results were implicitly biased. Additionally, I wonder if the fact that within the Age IAT description it says that “ This test often indicates that Americans have automatic preference for young over old” also played a role in my results since I am an American and there was a survey before the test that asked me this question about my demographics.
    Additionally, within article 5, it is stated that since the computer does not know how one thinks or feels, in order to give us results it measures the time between keystrokes, total number of keystrokes, the amount of time taken to make each individual association, etc. However, it does not factor in whether or not being left/right handed affects one’s keystroke/reaction time since if a person is left handed they will most likely react faster for “e” and if that person is right handed they will most likely react faster for “i”.

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    1. Jody
      My first IAT test concluded that I have a slight automatic preference for light skin compared to dark skin after I took the Skin Tone IAT. I wasn’t very surprised at this result because it is true, I do prefer light skin in comparison to dark skin. Therefore, I knew that this result highlighted my own bias so this didn’t really highlight something that I was unknowingly hiding from myself but instead helped me to further accept this instead of having my doubts about whether or not I really do have this preference and if it is right for me to have such a preference. However, I was a bit surprised at my second IAT result which said that I have a slight automatic preference for young people compared to old people. I had to question these results because how can I be sure this result is true and completely unbiased when I am constantly and on a daily basis surrounded by young people. This is probably where implicit bias plays a major role since according to article 4, the IAT test deals with automatic association and the results are due to one’s in-group/out-group membership. Therefore, since I automatically associate myself with young people rather than old people since it is my in-group, I have come to the conclusion that my results were implicitly biased. Additionally, within the Age IAT description it says that “This test often indicates that Americans have automatic preference for young over old”. This is insinuating that Americans prefer being young than they do old which to some extent is actually true. This is because it is often very offensive or categorized as rude (especially when referring to females) to refer to a person as an “old woman/lady” or “old man”. However, there is an opposite effect when referring to a person as “young lady/woman” or “young man”. I also notice that people who fall under the category of being old do not like to be referred to as old but would rather be called seniors. Not only that but a lot of skin care products are being introduced to the market to clear away wrinkles and keep a person looking young which further supports the preference of young over old. Therefore, I wonder if my end results were already pre-determined because of the young over old preference that Americans have since I am an American and there was a survey before the test that asked me this question about my demographics.
      Additionally, within article 5, it is stated that since the computer does not know how one thinks or feels so in order to give us results it measures the time between keystrokes, total number of keystrokes, the amount of time taken to make each individual association, etc. Thus, it can be said that the computer cannot correctly come to conclusions about a person after they have taken the IAT because it uses a mechanical method and humans are more than their mechanical actions. There is much more to factor in about a person in order to yield accurate results. For example, the test does not factor in the effect that being left or right handed will have on a person’s results. Being left/right handed affects one’s keystroke/reaction time since if a person is left handed they will most likely react faster for “e” and if that person is right handed they will most likely react faster for “i”. For example, I am right handed and so while taking the tests it was easier for me using my right hand to click “i” than it was using my left hand to click “e” so my reaction time for keystrokes done with my right hand will be much faster than the keystrokes done with my left hand. Since keystrokes count as a factor that the computer uses to come to its results then it can be said that not factoring in whether the person taking the test is left or right handed affects the end results of the test and declines how accurate the conclusions drawn by the tests really are.

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  8. Shania
    When I took the IAT and it gave me a strong - moderate result of the automatic preference for African American people over White Americans. I just thought it was more related to my environment , Where I live there aren't many White Americans for which I can associate myself. Therefore when reading article 2 and seeing some info about culture having a relationship with our results , I wasn't surprised however I was thinking about how early on it starts which can be 4 or 5 years old according to article 2. I thought it was interesting that purpose was added to this test , we aren't just testing for fun it is for improvement and recognition. We have to recognize our biases and with that it is a step in the right direction to changing our biases. So in Article 3 where Theodore Johnson talks about his experience and how he attacks the test repeatedly after taking into consideration , was interesting to me because at this point in ties in perspective. If someone see's that they should balance their bias and not try to focus on getting one side right then it can prove to be beneficial later. In the same article as well as Article 2 they explain how this can explain why white cops are more prone to shooting unarmed blacks. In a sense I agree because it is a cognitive reflex and if you are an implicitly bias cop you can definitely shoot someone and claim it wasn't due to racism , but in reality you are bias. In IB Literature we read the Invisible man and in a way you see implicit bias in IM because when he gets into the altercation with the white man he rattles off stereotypes and this cause him not to get caught. I feel as though it can be argued that he was implicitly bias with a moderate preference for White Americans over Black Americans because he feels invisible and race has a huge role for why he feels this way and it borders self hate ,but what is interesting is how he is conflicted with the grandfather clause which is a very strong implicit bias with preference of white over black people. I loved how the article included the W.E.B Dubois Top tenth because I feel as though some people may still have that bias. I think it would be interesting to have human experimentation on people whose ideals are similar to the characters in invisible man. Regardless what is powerful is how Johnson (after freaking out) had a positive response , he declared that he was bias and sought to not correct it ,but to accept it and try his best to equalize his ideals and thats an implication that changes the purpose of the test. However it is not perfect because like said in Article 2 people think and believe what they want to and the reaction from a IAT result can be but may not always be effective .

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    1. Shania ---- Revised Post
      When I took the IAT and it gave me a strong - moderate result of the automatic preference for African American people over White Americans. I just thought it was more related to my environment , Where I live there aren't many White Americans for which I can associate myself. Therefore when reading article 2 and seeing some info about culture having a relationship with our results , I wasn't surprised however I was thinking about how early on it starts which can be 4 or 5 years old according to article 2. I found it very interesting how data is supposed to be the basis of reasoning in most cases because data is more commonly credible than anything else however when it came to these results many found it hard to believe. So what about these test can be reasoned with? It basically is supposed to reveal implicit biases that lie in our perspectives. Its interesting knowing that these biases are tested against clear cut and general topics with controversial potential in them. The test deal with age , gender, weight , sexuality and race , in the test it presents race as white or black not all races but specific controversial race , the same with sexuality not bisexual , gay , straight but just gay or straight s the one being compared. When looking at it this way to me it indicates a fallacy of sweeping generalizations in a way.I thought it was interesting that purpose was added to this test , we aren't just testing for fun it is for improvement and recognition. We have to recognize our biases and with that it is a step in the right direction to changing our biases. So in Article 3 where Theodore Johnson talks about his experience and how he attacks the test repeatedly after taking into consideration , was interesting to me because at this point in ties in perspective. If someone see's that they should balance their bias and not try to focus on getting one side right then it can prove to be beneficial later. In the same article as well as Article 2 they explain how this can explain why white cops are more prone to shooting unarmed blacks. In a sense I agree because it is a cognitive reflex and if you are an implicitly bias cop you can definitely shoot someone and claim it wasn't due to racism , but in reality you are bias. Humans are complex creatures and I honestly don’t this test is complex enough to accurately uncover implicit biases , but it does a somewhat good job of making people question themselves. In IB Literature we read the Invisible man and in a way you see implicit bias in IM because when he gets into the altercation with the white man he rattles off stereotypes and this cause him not to get caught. I feel as though it can be argued that he was implicitly bias with a moderate preference for White Americans over Black Americans because he feels invisible and race has a huge role for why he feels this way and it borders self hate ,but what is interesting is how he is conflicted with the grandfather clause which is a very strong implicit bias with preference of white over black people. I loved how the article included the W.E.B Dubois Top tenth because I feel as though some people may still have that bias. I think it would be interesting to have human experimentation on people whose ideals are similar to the characters in invisible man. Regardless what is powerful is how Johnson (after freaking out) had a positive response , he declared that he was bias and sought to not correct it ,but to accept it and try his best to equalize his ideals and that's an implication that changes the purpose of the test. However it is not perfect because like said in Article 2 people think and believe what they want to and the reaction from a IAT result can be but may not always be effective .

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  9. Bintou

    Implicit biases are thoughts that lean toward something without even thinking critically about it. People usually have an implicit bias towards people of other races, which leads to racial discrimination. To understand more about implicit bias towards races, scientists created the Implicit Association Test (IAT), where it measures the strength of associations between concepts and evaluations or stereotypes. When I did the Implicit Association Test, I took the one on aging (Old v. Young). After doing a survey, we try to associate certain words or pictures as good or bad or the contrasts tested. My results say that I prefer young people to old people.

    How does the results of the Implicit Association Test helps scientists learn about implicit biases? A blog post in the Psychology Today website explains that scientists have interpreted the results as distinguishing between the “in-group” (the concepts that are like the subjects) and the “out-group” (concepts that aren’t). They found out that people are more familiar with using good words to describe the “in-group” than in the “out-group”. An article from The Atlantic states that even Blacks can misinterpret their own race as bad. An NPR article finds that scientists are using the results of the IAT to help find ways for people to change their attitudes over other races.

    I think implicit bias over other races is very bad because people have been thinking about minorities the wrong way, with usually negative connotations. The test was very invigorating and helped me learn about how I thought about old people to young people, just like scientists were doing for races. I have noticed that the good attributes were popping up more for old people than young people. I have also found the articles very interesting to learn about racism and people’s prejudice over them. If I were to explore this more, I would ask to what extent would the test be misleading in the results over prejudices?

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    1. Bintou

      When I did the Implicit Association Test (IAT), I did the one that tested on aging preferences (old versus new). My results showed up that I prefer young people to old people. This can be implied because I have been used to being with students and siblings more than my older friends and relatives. From my research on implicit bias and the IAT, I have found out that many people have the same problem: We tend to lean toward something without critically thinking about it because we get used to living in a society that tends to prefer one thing over another. For example, an article from The Atlantic says that even Blacks can misinterpret our own race as bad, because we get used to living in a society where we have been mistreated for centuries. As a Black myself, I have learned a lot about this racial discrimination, and I feel upset that they would think about their own race like that. In a Psychology Today article, we tend to have positive connotations about our own groups more than the opposing group based on IAT results. This leads to implicit biases that tend to prefer one group over another, making room for labels and stereotypes, affecting our memory of the opposing group. For example, we tend to think about Muslims like me as terrorists because of numerous attacks all over the world by Arab militant groups. Implicit biases, like all biases, can lead to impaired reasoning and actions, like Donald Trump’s proposal to temporarily ban Arab and Muslim immigrants in the US. Another example is what we learned about German Jews in World War II during IB History class, where they have been treated by the Nazis as inferior and unwanted to their society. An NPR article states that scientists are using the IAT to help find ways for people to change their attitudes over other races or groups. I thought that the research shown was very insightful as they show that by reinforcing positive connotations over the opposing groups, we can start to think better for these people. Another way to combat implicit bias is to learn about other people’s culture, history and customs to understand them better and to make better judgments over them. Until we can think more critically on other races instead of through stereotypes and labels, it seems that implicit bias is here to stay.

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  10. Mariatu
    I found these tests very interesting while doing them in class. The tests I took were the ones debating if I think of weapons being in the hands of black people versus white people and if I preferred Arab-Muslims versus “Other People”. With the Weapons test, there were many implications. I noticed how when there was a picture of a black person, their face showed more so that it was easy for me to identify them as black. There was no way I would get the answer wrong in this case. For those who were white, I saw less of their face in my opinion. Most of the time I would identify them correctly as a white person but other times I honestly wouldn’t know what to put them down as. When I had to identify them I had trouble with the keys “E” and “I” when they were switched around because I was so used to them being positioned the way they were in the first series of tests. In article, “Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias”, the author talks about his test results being a “strong automatic preference for European Americans compared to African Americans” but doesn’t go into detail of how that came about. More details on the results would have been interesting to me. Looking at the news, they always affiliate the black person as the one who most likely is carrying a weapon or is responsible for something of that sort. My results made me feel some type of way because I feel as though if I could figure out the “white faces” as easily as I could the blacks my results wouldn’t come down to being moderate automatic associations with blacks. The tests that consist of deciding whether I prefer Arab-Muslims versus “Other People” wasn’t easily read. First off, I didn’t know how this could be tested until I saw that I had to distinguish Muslim names versus “regular” ones that belonged to “Other People”. What if a Muslim name seemed like a regular name to someone else? What if a name that seemed regular seemed like a Muslim name to someone? I just didn’t understand how it was valid. For example, the name “Khalid” popped up and I was stuck on whether it was an Arab-Muslim name or regular because I know people who are far from Arab-Muslim with that name so I didn’t know whether to state it was an Arab-Muslim name or not. I ended up stating that it was an Arab-Muslim name and it was correct. I’m confused on how someone could have an “Arab-Muslim” name in the first place. Doing this activity reminded me of someone automatically being accused of something because of their name. For example, if someone was shot and the suspects were between a person named Rodney and Bob; the way society thinks today they (some) would automatically link it to the black person. Just because you have a certain name doesn’t mean that you should be affiliated in a certain way, group, etc. In the first article, their main discussion is based on how white teachers rate white kids higher than blacks. From this, I can imply that teachers have expectations for different types of people. In history class, we always have discussions about different expectations of certain people for example, the Authoritarian Rulers. Idi Amin Dada from most people was expected to be mean based on his looks and race (black). Pol Pot wasn’t of black decent and was “read” wrong. You shouldn’t have to link race to anyone’s ability to do something because you never know what they are capable of.

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    1. Mariatu
      I found these tests very interesting while doing them in class. The tests I took were the ones debating if I think of weapons being in the hands of black people versus white people and if I preferred Arab-Muslims versus “Other People”. With the Weapons test, there were many implications. I noticed how when there was a picture of a black person, their face showed more so that it was easy for me to identify them as black. There was no way I would get the answer wrong in this case. For those who were white, I saw less of their face in my opinion. Most of the time I would identify them correctly as a white person but other times I honestly wouldn’t know what to put them down as. When I had to identify them I had trouble with the keys “E” and “I” when they were switched around because I was so used to them being positioned the way they were in the first series of tests. From this, I can conclude that they were obviously trying to play with our minds and test us to to see if we actually meant the answer that we did or we were just confused. Being that the criteria was switched also tells me that they want to be able to see if we are really paying attention or not. In the article,“Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias”, the author talks about his test results being a “strong automatic preference for European Americans compared to African Americans” but doesn’t go into detail of how that came about. More details on the results would have been interesting to me. Looking at the news, they always affiliate the black person as the one who most likely is carrying a weapon or is responsible for something of that sort.

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    2. Mariatu pt 2
      My results made me feel some type of way because I feel as though if I could figure out the “white faces” as easily as I could the blacks my results wouldn’t come down to being moderate automatic associations with blacks. The tests that consist of deciding whether I prefer Arab-Muslims versus “Other People” wasn’t easily read. First off, I didn’t know how this could be tested until I saw that I had to distinguish Muslim names versus “regular” ones that belonged to “Other People”. What if a Muslim name seemed like a regular name to someone else? What if a name that seemed regular seemed like a Muslim name to someone? I just didn’t understand how it was valid. For example, the name “Khalid” popped up and I was stuck on whether it was an Arab-Muslim name or regular because I know people who are far from Arab-Muslim with that name so I didn’t know whether to state it was an Arab-Muslim name or not. I ended up stating that it was an Arab-Muslim name and it was correct. I’m confused on how someone could have an “Arab-Muslim” name in the first place. Implications of this include that people with names that sound like it could be “Arab-Muslim” are Arab-Muslim names. Because of my religion, any name that comes from the Quran is considered an Arabic name. So in my eyes, if your name doesn’t come the Quran then your name isn’t actually Arabic. I can also consider that they don’t really understand the true meaning behind one’s language. It’s like me saying that because my name is Alena my name is American because some American girls have that name. When you do the research, Alena is actually a German name - comes from the name Helena. You can’t pinpoint a race with a name that easily without knowing the history. Doing this activity reminded me of someone automatically being accused of something because of their name. For example, if someone was shot and the suspects were between a person named Rodney and Bob; the way society thinks today they (some) would automatically link it to the black person. Just because you have a certain name doesn’t mean that you should be affiliated in a certain way, group, etc. In the first article, their main discussion is based on how white teachers rate white kids higher than blacks. From this, I can imply that teachers have expectations for different types of people. In history class, we always have discussions about different expectations of certain people for example, the Authoritarian Rulers. Idi Amin Dada from most people was expected to be mean based on his looks and race (black). Pol Pot wasn’t of black decent and was “read” wrong. You shouldn’t have to link race to anyone’s ability to do something because you never know what they are capable of.

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  11. Camiellalouisa Part 1,
    Implicit biases exist in all of us and they can be heard to notice but thanks (in some cases no thanks) to the Implicit Bias IAT test. They enable one to come to face with some of their biases. The Black on Black racism article was not surprising. I myself have been around people who favored whites even though I am black myself. We are immersed in a community that discourages black people and denounces all their character traits, so of course that would seep into the minds of black people. It makes us hate ourselves. This society finds a way to make even the most positive light shed on black people negative. For example when we get together, I admit some of us black people get too excited and when that happens we get loud. But rather than looking at that as showing genuine love and care for each other, people roll their eyes and call it disrespectful and ghetto. That is another thing, what people feel is disrespectful is relative to their culture so there should be no set definition; the characteristics the article stated would be respectful sound almost robot like. To be respectful and accepted we have to shed our skin and be void of any emotion other than impassive. Black people see so much hate around them that in order to escape it we conform to the side that we feel is less hated. It’s like in the cliche movies when the popular girl who actually loves comics and reading pretends to be obnoxious to get the likes of everybody else. Honestly I cannot judge because I also have these biases. They fall under the stereotypes we come in contact with everyday. In school while walking the hallways, every time I hear a loud group of girls I immediately think they are black and call them akatas. Sometimes I am right and others I am not but the fact that my head automatically thinks that, says enough. In Biology we did an analysis of a study that claimed poverty was in our genes. In it there were two types of kids, those who after growing up in poverty and disappointment their whole life, break the barrier and be successful. Also there are those who are sucked into the void and believe that there is no good in the world. This to me explains why there is black on black racism; if one is exposed to environments that shame a certain people, they too will grow up that way, whether or not they acknowledge it and only a select few will grow away from that notion.

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  12. Camiellalouisa Part 2,
    Teachers, among others have a tremendous impact on their students and they are also people. What we have been learning is that everyone has implicit biases and that includes them. As a student when I walk into a classroom I can’t help but judge every student I see, by judge I mean guess how serious they are about their education. We all do it, interviewers do it as soon as a potential employee walks through their door and sure enough teachers do it that first day of school. First impressions mean everything. I think that countless times teachers have seen black kids who gave up before even trying. So they form those biases out of experience, they started labeling. There are many times that a teacher simply believing in a child could be what stops them from spiraling downward. Last class we learned that our brain thinks systematically, and I believe that is what occurs in order for us to form stereotypes and labels.These tests gives us a gift, the gift of knowing and with that we can take steps towards changing. Our biases are also due to fallacies in our reasoning, again to reiterate when we categorize that is us making hasty generalizations and much more, there are outliers to every group of data and when we find that those outliers make it complex we just generalize everything and ignore the rest. What we don’t realize is how our faulty reasoning and stereotypes bring us back. The standard of beauty and affluence is pro-White, this has been proven to have negative effects on children of color; for example when kids hate their curly locks, brown skin. The study done with children where they had to pick the prettiest doll, most kids black or white chose the white doll. What does that say about our society?

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    1. Implicit biases exist in all of us and they can be hard to notice but thanks (in some cases no thanks) to the Implicit Bias IAT test. They enable one to come to face with some of their biases. The Black on Black racism article was not surprising. I myself have been around people who favored whites even though I am black myself. We are immersed in a community that discourages black people and denounces all their character traits, so of course that would seep into the minds of black people. It makes us hate ourselves. This society finds a way to make even the most positive light shed on black people negative. For example when we get together, I admit some of us black people get too excited and when that happens we get loud. But rather than looking at that as showing genuine love and care for each other, people roll their eyes and call it disrespectful and ghetto. That is another thing, what people feel is disrespectful is relative to their culture so there should be no set definition; the characteristics the article stated would be respectful, sound almost robot like. To be respectful and accepted we have to shed our skin and be void of any emotion other than impassive. Black people see so much hate around them that in order to escape it we conform to the side that we feel is less hated. It’s like in the cliche movies when the popular girl who actually loves comics and reading pretends to be obnoxious to get the likes of everybody else. Honestly I cannot judge because I also have these biases. They fall under the stereotypes we come in contact with everyday. In school while walking the hallways, every time I hear a loud group of girls I immediately think they are black. Sometimes I am right and others I am not but the fact that my head automatically thinks that, says enough. Like with the IAT, they test your initial response. In Biology we did an analysis of a study that claimed poverty was in our genes. In it there were two types of kids, those who after growing up in poverty and disappointment their whole life, break the barrier and be successful. Also there are those who are sucked into the void and believe that there is no good in the world. This to me explains why there is black on black racism; if one is exposed to environments that shame a certain people, they too will grow up that way, whether or not they acknowledge it and only a select few will grow away from that notion.
      Teachers, among others have a tremendous impact on their students and they are also people. What we have been learning is that everyone has implicit biases and that includes them. As a student when I walk into a classroom I can’t help but judge every student I see, by judge I mean guess how serious they are about their education. We all do it, interviewers do it as soon as a potential employee walks through their door and sure enough teachers do it that first day of school. First impressions mean everything. I think that countless times teachers have seen black kids who gave up before even trying. So they form those biases out of experience, they started labeling. There are many times that a teacher simply believing in a child could be what stops them from spiraling downward. Last class we learned that our brain thinks systematically, and I believe that is what occurs in order for us to form stereotypes and labels.These tests gives us a gift, the gift of knowing and with that we can take steps towards changing. Our biases are also due to fallacies in our reasoning, again to reiterate when we categorize that is us making hasty generalizations and much more, there are outliers to every group of data and when we find that those outliers make it complex we just generalize everything and ignore the rest. What we don’t realize is how our faulty reasoning and stereotypes bring us back. The standard of beauty and affluence is pro-White, this has been proven to have negative effects on children of color; for example when kids hate their curly locks, brown skin.

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    2. The study done with children where they had to pick the prettiest doll, most kids black or white chose the white doll. What does that say about our society?
      It is not always pleasant when we find out our implicit biases for example I asked my mother to take the test about fat-thin preferences, her results were basically that she preferred thin over fat and it really upset her. She wanted so much to be equal, even before she took the test I asked her she said she was equal. The fact that it tells you if you’re wrong basically making everything right or wrong when sometimes she wanted to say it depends, and also the speed angered her. She didn’t feel it was accurate and she felt rushed. There were some people that she felt were thin but IAT categorized them as fat. I just feel that in order to get accurate results they have to limit as many variables as possible. Although rarely talked about, there are positives to this test: they expose us to thoughts that we try to avoid (like how some people try to avoid talking about politics or race). By knowing it we can work towards changing it. It’s hard accepting my hypocrisy, me biased against my own people but it made more conscious of my own thoughts. What if I were in a different environment would my results be the same? I am pretty sure because even in foreign countries such as my own, European Americans are treated better than the country’s own citizens. However, if I grew up in this modern western world and my household emulated its values I do think that I would have an even association of career and family with both male and females. If the results backed up what I thought I knew about myself, like we did in the reason chapter would back my faulty reasoning through the Barnum effect , I would believe that I am 100% correct and no one could tell me otherwise. It’s like democracy, rule by majority so if a majority agrees on something it’s taken as true (to an extent). My ego will probably be inflated as I will see myself as balanced and free of implicit biases when that is not true.


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  13. Sabeena
    By taking the three tests, the notion of implicit bias became more apparent to me than ever. Implicit bias is our attitudes or stereotypes that affect how we think and act subconsciously. The first test I took was the test for racial bias. The test associated positive and negative terms with black people and white people. Our instant reaction was used to prove whether or not we utilize implicit bias in an unconscious manner. Since I grew up around a predominantly black area I would have believed that I partially favored African Americans more than whites. However, after receiving my score it said that I preferred White people over black people. After reevaluating why this was the outcome, I came to realize that it was because even though I live in a bubbled area filled with diversity, there are still many other factors such as the rest of society that could've influenced my result. Associations from implicit bias develop over the course of a lifetime beginning at a very early age through exposure to direct and indirect messages. For example, when I was younger there were far more white barbie dolls than anything. The main dolls that were produced has the same characteristics: blond, white and blue eyes. At such an early age this was the standard of beauty that was taught to me. Society has always told me that features that didn't fit the Eurocentric standard were not beautiful. Even the young black children I grew up with would not accept their features as beautiful. The media also perpetrates implicit bias. For example, I always see news channels portray African American criminals more negatively than white criminals. For example, they always use a black persons mugshot on the news or an image that makes them look bad. However, if there is ever a white criminal they try their best to make it seem as if it was just a mistake or something by showing an image of them in school or with their family. This subconsciously affects how people view African Americans. Just like in the test my instincts might have associated an entire race with a negative connotation. This is because we all have implicit biases because of the way society categorizes and labels us. What we're exposed to influences our actions, decisions and understandings.

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    1. Sabeena Reply
      After learning more about implicit bias, I did extra research in order to determine how else they affect our lives on a daily basis. Implicit bias can affect people’s decisions and their behavior toward people of other races. For example, in the medical field, research has shown that a doctor with implicit racial bias will be less likely to recommend black patients to specialists or may recommend surgery rather than a less invasive treatment. In the work force, Managers will be less likely to invite a black candidate in for a job interview or to provide a positive performance evaluation. In our court of law, Judges have been found to grant dark-skinned defendants sentences up to 8 months longer for identical offenses. This displays how people of color are immediately put at a disadvantage for just being who they are and contributes to the systematic oppression that faces POC particularly African Americans. Institutional Oppression occurs when established laws, customs, and practices systematically reflect and produce inequities based on a targeted social identity group. Implicit biases further and stimulate these inequalities. Implicit bias has shown to be relevant in many areas of knowledge. For example, in Biology class we began to study the Golden Ratio and how Da Vinci would only test it on Caucasian males. So when we tried to conduct experiments in our class our results wouldn't yield to those of the ratio. This is because Da Vinci's experimenting only consisted of White males. This is an example of implicit bias because in order for a scientific study to be proven accurate there has to be a wide sampling for experimentation. However, Da Vinci didn't feel the need to test anyone outside of his own race and failed to recognize other races as eligible for experimentation. Enforcing the idea that people of color, are less than human.

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  14. Emonee
    The Implicit Associations Test measured the attitudes and beliefs we encounter everyday of our lives. The tests themselves were able to bring out the different unconscious roots of thoughts and feelings. The results showed the strengths and responses to the different stereotypes we live by. I took the racial IAT and my results were that I prefer dark skinned people over light skinned people. At first, the results surprised me because I treat everyone equally. But I realized that it was true to a certain extent. The data results showed different percentages that represented a strong or weak level of the Implicit preference. I was able to realize that my results was a slight reflection of how my surroundings influence my beliefs and attitudes towards different things. Since it is true that we adapt to things that we relate to, it played a role in my results. Growing up in an urban area for my whole life, I have not experienced the true diversity of Maryland itself. In a way, my results were based off of what I am use to and my overall lifestyle. Our unconscious bias are shown through the data of the results but the validity comes into question. In the article about the Harvard Implicit Association Test, which contributed to the prejudice and societal failings that attributed to our unconscious biases. It questioned the validity of the IAT because our results were based on your keyboard performance. The results present your performance of speed and motion rather than your mind.

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    1. Emonee Part 1. The Implicit Associations Test measured the attitudes and beliefs we encounter everyday of our lives. The tests themselves were able to bring out the different unconscious roots of thoughts and feelings. The results indicated the strengths and responses to the different stereotypes we live by. I took the racial IAT and my results were that I prefer dark skinned people over light skinned people. At first, the results surprised me because I treat everyone equally. But I realized that it was true to a certain extent. The data results demonstrated the stereotype of how people accept one race over another. At first, I believed the test was based off of categorization rather than my preference of a race.My results made me question my actions towards lighter skinned people. But after we had a class discussion of different peoples results, I thought about different cliques at school and how it people prefer other people who share the same view of perspectives, beliefs, and stereotypes. Also how our implicit bias effect how we judge one another especially with different cliques in school. In all honesty, I have those stereotypes of judging darker skinned people as ghetto because of how they act. Since it is true that we adapt to things and also people that we relate to, it made think of how the results brought to reality how unaware we actually are of our implicit bias within our surroundings that influence us during our everyday life. We live in a society that downgrades darker skinned people compared to lighter skinned people. Us darker skinned people are often judged harshly due to the stereotypes and characterizations we are categorized as; such as being ghetto or unintelligent. Even today, racism is still a huge issue today; dealing with discrimination in the justice system and education system for example.

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    2. Emonee Part 2.
      In the first article about implicit bias shaping teacher’s expectations, the article gave me more insight on how teachers implicit biases are shown in the classroom. It talked about implicit bias playing a role in the of student success based on their race; also how brought the question whether black teacher are too optimistic, non black teachers are too pessimistic or a combination of the two. Everyone gets judged when you come into contact with somebody for the first time. That type of implicit bias is automatic for people; for example, a teacher looking at a male student or any race that sags his pants below his waist or not going to class are seen as not serious or not going to be successful. As well for females that wear inappropriate clothing that act in a “ghetto” matter are seen in a certain way by teachers as well. These first impressions are what develop labels and categories for males and females of any race. Our society is built upon those labels and they have created a bias view in everyone’s eyes that we may or may not be aware of. They also play a part in our preferences of other races other than your own. In the third article, it explained in depth of how our implicit biases came alive during the IAT. “When respondents responded to black faces with negative words more quickly than other pairings showed implicit bias.” It showed how society’s labels influence our implicit bias of how we categorize others. During police discrimination, darker skinned people are categorized as dangerous, armed, and a potential threat to the officer. Recent encounters of police brutality and discrimination resulted in the deaths of hundreds of african americans due to the fact that are seen a certain way which causes police officers to respond in a violent way. These different encounters brought racial implicit bias to reality when african americans were killed due to labels or false accusations based off our their race. These generalizations were present during the IAT test when we had to categorize darker skinned or lighter skinned faces with adjectives when we matched darker skin with the negative words and lighter skin with the positive; it goes to show how our society actually is.
      The IAT test gave me more insight on how much our implicit bias influenced our views, actions and beliefs. It also showed the interconnection between the IAT results and our fallacies with reason. Everyday we judge people and make generalizations of others based on labels of how we think they are or how they act based on their race. Although, as a country we want to be free and equal, our implicit bias shaped society a certain way by creating stereotypes that we now live by. Whether we realize it or not racial implicit bias are present everywhere in everybody and it shaped how we actually are as a country.

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  15. Sabeena
    The first article I read discussed how implicit biases present in our teachers affect the outcomes of child's success. After reading the article I related experiences in my own life to believe just how much of an effect implicit bias has on children. Throughout my entire life predominantly all my classmates were black or Hispanic. Before I was placed in TAG or IB, most of my classes were with the general population of the school. Not all of these students were well behaved but his doesn't mean they are any less deserving of an education. I remember many instances where if a black student specifically male ever acted up, they were immediately disciplined and in a manner that only discouraged them more from an education. For example, when I was in Middle school, there was once a fight between a white kid and black kid in class. It was not clear who had started it but they both engaged in it. After breaking them up the white kid had a phone call with his parents and a stern talk about his future. The black student on the other hand was suspended for a three days. The teacher or faculty member who gave this punishment was a black woman. I would have thought she might have been a bit more fair with this punishment considering she was black but it seemed like she had just given up on this student. The negative notions and actions that are done towards African Americans is what reinforces the stereotypes attached with them. Being constantly labeled and not seen as equal is what causes communities to lose hope. This is one of the causes of the school to prison pipeline. The second article discusses how society can change internally in order to prevent prejudices. Scientifically it is basically not possible to end it all because people will always think how they want to think and until society finally acknowledges its flaws then will we truly progress. However, there are still people like Trump supporters and other bigots who are set in their ways and will influence their children and the children's children for generations to come. However, in order to change within ourselves the only way to reduce bias is by to ensure our prejudices affect our decisions as little as possible. This may be difficult because our reasoning is often based off of our beliefs or personal experiences that may hold biases. This is why implicit bias may be something that we as humans may never overcome.

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  16. Implications of the tests are that they are there to see what you subconsciously think about a certain group. When doing the test, they are already placed in a group and already have words that mean good and bad. When doing the test, your brain automatically pairs the words that are good to one group and bad to the other. Therefore, when it is switched, your mind is more hesitant when connecting the good words to the group that was initially connected to the bad words. This is how the test works in order to see what prejudice you have about a certain group that you didn’t think was possible but it’s subconscious. This is related to prison of consistency, which the once you have taken a position on something you may find it hard to change your mind without losing face. Some people can’t understand their results and are somewhat appalled by it but it’s because they already had this particular view on that group and this test is telling them something different.
    Implications of my results are that my environment has a lot to do with how I took those test. When I did the IAT on age, my results were slight automatic preference for Old people compared to young people. I got this score because of how I think of elderly people I get a warm feeling and I see them baking cookies and telling you their stories from their days. But when I think of young people, I think of the kids I see in my school and how they are loud, rude, and angry. Being in my school environment shaped my view on how I viewed young people compared to how I viewed the elderly. Another test that I took was about weight. My results were slight automatic preference for thin people over fat people. I am a very athletic person, and I like to stay in shape so most of my friends are considered thin people since they have the similar interests in athletics like I do. This is another example of how my environment shaped my views into thinking a certain way.
    Implications of the articles are that IAT results can be controlled but it is also difficult. When experimenting in the human sciences they’re has been data to show that people can let go of prejudice for good, if they wanted to. But it’s the want to actually want to think this way and to believe in this. Scientists show that you can become less bias when you are sleeping. When you are asleep, your brain is going over everything that you learned in that day. Therefore, the scientists were trying to hack the cognitive digestion process, forcing participants’ brains to review and internalize the counter stereotypical associations that they were exposed to during the training they did before they went to sleep. This shows the implication that our implicit attitudes are malleable. However, as said before not everyone wants to change the way they view things or people. So it is therefore difficult to do. Articles four discussed how we have to be careful how different groups are portrayed in the media, schools, and society. I found this very interesting because once a black man is shot or killed negative words are being used to describe him or useless information that wasn’t needed being shown in the news but once it is a white man there is a much more positive viewing for him. So how can we be careful with how different groups are portrayed when society is already playing that role and making those different groups be so “different.” Like article four said before they are in groups and out groups. Once you have already labeled yourself as a part of the in groups everything else is the out group. Therefore, society has placed it’s in group and is using media to categorize the out groups by putting negative connotations to which the brain is also subconsciously learning and making its own prejudice.

    ~Remi

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    1. Implications of the tests are that they are there to see what you subconsciously think about a certain group. When doing the test, they are already placed in a group and already have words that mean good and bad. Also your brain automatically pairs the words that are good to one group and bad to the other. Therefore, when it is switched, your mind is more hesitant when connecting the good words to the group that was initially connected to the bad words. This is how the test works in order to see what prejudice you have about a certain group that you didn’t think was possible but it’s subconscious. This is related to prison of consistency, which is once you have taken a position on something you may find it hard to change your mind without losing face. Some people can’t understand their results and are somewhat appalled by it because they already had this particular view on that group and this test is telling them something different. This can be applied to the ongoing election that is happening now. The people who are voting for Trump can’t see the fact that he isn’t a good president. Even with all the evidence showing what he believes in and his lack of knowledge in foreign policy his voters don’t care and will continue to vote for him.
      Implications of my results are that my environment has a lot to do with how I took those test. When I did the IAT on age, my results were slight automatic preference for Old people compared to young people. I got this score because of how I think of elderly people I get a warm feeling and I see them baking cookies and telling you their stories from their days. But when I think of young people, I think of the kids I see in my school and how they are loud, rude, and angry. Being in my school environment shaped my view on how I viewed young people compared to how I viewed the elderly. Another test that I took was about weight. My results were slight automatic preference for thin people over fat people. I am a very athletic person, and I like to stay in shape so most of my friends are considered thin people since they have the similar interests in athletics like I do. This is another example of how my environment shaped my views into thinking a certain way.

      Delete
    2. Implications of the articles are that IAT results can be controlled but it is also difficult. When experimenting in the human sciences there has been data to show that people can let go of prejudice for good, if they wanted to. But it’s the want to actually want to think this way and to believe in this. Scientists show that you can become less bias when you are sleeping. When you are asleep, your brain is going over everything that you learned in that day. Therefore, the scientists were trying to hack the cognitive digestion process, forcing participants’ brains to review and internalize the counter stereotypical associations that they were exposed to during the training they did before they went to sleep. This shows the implication that our implicit attitudes are malleable. However, as said before not everyone wants to change the way they view things or people. So it is therefore difficult to do. Articles four discussed how we have to be careful how different groups are portrayed in the media, schools, and society. I found this very interesting because with rape the media mostly shows how it is women who are getting rape when there have been cases when men have gotten raped too and by women. The men who have gotten raped have been portrayed as weak since they let a woman raped them and they are viewed as strong and for person who is “smaller” than them force themselves on them is showing weakness. However, for someone who thinks forcing someone to have intercourse isn’t okay what about when it’s a parent forcing their child to take their medicine. With these two different situations it changes how one can view the word force and when it is okay to do so. Like article four said before they are ingroups and outgroups. Once you have already labeled yourself as a part of the in groups everything else is the out group. So how can we be careful with how different groups are portrayed when society is already playing that role and making those different groups be so “different.” Therefore, society has placed it’s in group and is using media to categorize the out groups by putting negative connotations to which the brain is also subconsciously learning and making its own prejudice. Therefore the IAT test is using the technique of priming in order to create one’s prejudice with having negative and positive words with certain groups.

      Delete
  17. Implicit biases are automatic or undetectable, bias , stereotypes and prejudices that an individual has but might not be aware of it. Because of the complex nature of implicit biases the implications of such type of biases must be fully evaluated in order to understand the relevance in the world we live in today.

    Through my experiences with the IAT test I found out a lot about myself. From the beginning I found the test very weird and uncomfortable from the start. I feel as though I was thinking too hard about the answer choices and trying to not mess up. I would say that going into the test I had my suspicions about how this test was going to determine my own implicit bias. For the skin color test my results were that I prefered darker skin over lighter skin. I didn't really think too much about the results initially because in my eyes the test was on skin tone not exactly race. While I was taking the test I thought it was an evolution of lighter skinned black people and darker skinned. Once we had a class discussion about the IAT it was under my impression that the test was actually asking about race rather than different shades of black people. I think my results of favoring darker skin over lighter skin do not surprise me. In my mind I don’t really think I care but from the test it seems that I do have a preference. The test did make me question my actions and really made me think about if I do see myself favoring darked skinned people over lighter skinned but I couldn’t really find and instances where that was the case. Overall all I though the IAT for this particular test was not really helpful and I don’t think it reflected my implicit biases.


    The second IAT test I took was about gender and career. My results indicated that I showed no preference to gender and the career they had. I though this result was very accurate because I know that it is something I am always surrounded by. I see women everyday in fields that people would consider a, “male dominated” career. I believe being surrounded by so many in different careers and some many young girls who are doing well and striving for all types of careers ( like our IB class) it has shaped my perception that gender doesn’t matter when it comes to careers.

    Jasmine
    Part 1

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  18. The two articles that I read was the one about implicit bias shaping teacher expectations and the NPR article about dealing with our implicit bias. The teaching article was very interesting and brought up some really good points about how teachers expectations can be shaped by their implicit biases. I think information like this is very relevant and very important to be brought to the world's attention. Because some many people not just teachers have these implicit biases that they are unaware of there is alway this division or lack in understanding between teachers and students of different ethnic groups. If teachers are unaware of these biases that are shaping their expectations then there is no way of those biases to go away. I alway wondered whether or not reasoning came into play when dealing with implicit bias especially in teachers. For example if a teacher has a student who is black and believes that the students does not have what it takes to do well in college is that a reasonable thought if it is something they have witnessed time and time again. Obviously there is an implicit bias present that black children are less likely to be successful at college but is this bias reasonable if that's what the teacher has always seen happen?

    Regardless of if reason is being used or not, reason can be used to address these issues. Reasoning can be a method to hinder implicit biases that have been uncovered. For instance in the latter example reasoning can be used by the teacher to evaluate the student as an individual; not based of of his or her experiences or assumptions. Reasoning can help a teacher focus on the student and the type of work he or she is producing in order to create a conclusion on whether or not they are ready rather than relying on experience.
    Jasmine
    Part 2

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  19. The second article was about implicit biases, how they are present in everyone and what we can do in order to fix them. This article really evaluated the implications of implicit bias and how they come about. It is clear that these bias are something that develop overtime from childhood and are hard to change. One thing that came to mind while reading this article was one of my history classes and the discussion of Brown v. The Board of Education. In this landmark Supreme Court case the, “Doll Test,” was something used to evaluate the harmful effects of segregation to African American students. In the study they found that black children were more likely to favor the white doll over the black one, showcases this development of self inferiority in the black youth. Even today the same type of experiment has been re done many times in modern times. The data still reflects African AMerican children’s feeling of inferiority towards their white counterparts.


    It is true that a s a nation we have come a long way from explicit basis and racism and bias in our nation, however there is still the presence of implicit biases. These implicit biases have lasting effects on all of us. They not only cause unfair stereotypes towards other races but also to ourselves. By being aware of these biases we can overtime deal with them. It is evident that complete prejudice will never die. We can only deal with implicit biases that we are willing to accept are present or biases that w e are willing to accept are wrong or prejudicial. But, overtime we can work through these biases and at least be able to understand one another. For now, like tated in the article we have to find ways to eliminate our implicit biases in the reasoning process . Although this is a tough task in some respects it is quite doable in other areas like college and job applications and any type of performing arts audition. By eliminating the person's physical appearance to name, the individual is forced to only focus on the content of the person rather than being clouded by their impact biases of the person.

    Jasmine
    Part 3

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    Replies
    1. Implicit biases are automatic or undetectable, bias , stereotypes and prejudices that an individual has but might not be aware of it. Because of the complex nature of implicit biases the implications of such type of biases must be fully evaluated in order to understand the relevance in the world we live in today.

      Through my experiences with the IAT test I found out a lot about myself. From the beginning I found the test very weird and uncomfortable from the start. I feel as though I was thinking too hard about the answer choices and trying to not mess up. I would say that going into the test I had my suspicions about how this test was going to determine my own implicit bias. For the skin color test my results were that I prefer darker skin over lighter skin. I didn't really think too much about the results initially because in my eyes the test was on skin tone not exactly race. While I was taking the test I thought it was an evolution of lighter skinned black people and darker skinned. Once we had a class discussion about the IAT I realized that my interpretation about the skin color IAT was much different than the rest of my classmates. I saw the test as seeing which skin color you preferred but to me all of the images shown were African AMerican people. The class had interpreted the test in a more racial way of wether or not you prefer black people. This added much more complexity to the way I thought about my results. Initially when I first got my results I didn’t really read into it much, it was significance in my opinion. But when looking at it from a racial standpoint I realized that the results did make since. I know that I spend most of my time around people who look like me which whether or not my experiences are good or bad I still prefer that group of people because it has made up most of my childhood.The test did make me question my actions and really made me think about if I do see myself favoring darked skinned people over lighter skinned but I couldn’t really find any instances where that was the case. Overall all I though the IAT for this particular test was not really helpful and I don’t think it reflected my implicit biases.

      Jasmine Re-Do Part: 1

      Delete
    2. The second IAT test I took was about gender and career. My results indicated that I showed no preference to gender and the career they had. I though this result was very accurate because I know that it is something I am always surrounded by. I see women everyday in fields that people would consider a, “male dominated” career. I believe being surrounded by so many females in different careers and so many young girls who are doing well and striving for all types of careers ( like our IB class- our class is made a majority of girls who are striving to be in many fields like the medical field, law, international relations) has shaped my perception that gender doesn’t matter when it comes to careers. It has become my norm to see people succeed and pursue careers no matter what their gender is and I think this was reflected by my results but not by my performance in the test. I did feel that there were some problems with the test itself. WIth the gener test I know that I messed up a lot fo the time mixing up the words and having to be corrected. I'm not sure if this contributed to my results or not. I think that there is the possibility of some inconsistencies with the test considering it is just testing your ability to categorize different words and images. I think the IAT can be easily manipulate like a lie detector test to reflect what you want it to reflect after you have already taken one test before. One positive of the test is the very first test you take. That could be the most accurate out of it all considering you don’t know what to expect and you in the end are subconsciously answering the questions without knowing the implications.

      With my results to the gender and career I also saw how this affects my interpretation of historical events. One Supreme Court case that i have always found interesting was Roe V. Wade. Although the courts ruled in favor of women and their right to choice I found it quite weird that a all men court was making a decision for women. I have alway found it surprising that women weren't included in the court sooner considering they are just as capable as men. This affects my historical interpretation because I don’t see the case as a landmark case that increased women's rights considering women themselves were not included in the decision.
      Jasmine Re-Do Part: 2

      Delete
    3. The two articles that I read was the one about implicit bias shaping teacher expectations and the NPR article about dealing with our implicit bias. The teaching article was very interesting and brought up some really good points about how teachers expectations can be shaped by their implicit biases. I think information like this is very relevant and very important to be brought to the world's attention. Because some many people not just teachers have these implicit biases that they are unaware of there is always this division or lack in understanding between teachers and students of different ethnic groups. If teachers are unaware of these biases that are shaping their expectations then there is no way of those biases to go away. I always wondered whether or not reasoning came into play when dealing with implicit bias especially in teachers. For example if a teacher has a student who is black and believes that the students does not have what it takes to do well in college is that a reasonable thought if it is something they have witnessed time and time again. Obviously there is an implicit bias present that black children are less likely to be successful at college but is this bias reasonable if that's what the teacher has always seen happen? This is something that seems very similar to issues in the workplace. There is a huge issue with African American individuals not getting hired for a job when they have the same or better qualities as their counterparts. Some employers might be hesitant to hire a African American person because of past experiences with hiring one or becuase of stores they have heard about African American employees. It begs the question of if it's okay to rely off of an implicit biases that might be your only reality? Can it even be considered a biases if that is the only thing an individual has experienced? I think the problem with racism in some respects is misconceptions and having sweeping overgeneralizations.
      Regardless of if reason is being used or not, reason can be used to address these issues. Reasoning can be a method to hinder implicit biases that have been uncovered. For instance in the latter example reasoning can be used by the teacher to evaluate the student as an individual; not based of of his or her experiences or assumptions. Reasoning can help a teacher focus on the student and the type of work he or she is producing in order to create a conclusion on whether or not they are ready rather than relying on experience.
      Jasmine Re-Do Part: 3

      Delete
    4. The second article was about implicit biases, how they are present in everyone and what we can do in order to fix them. This article really evaluated the implications of implicit bias and how they come about. It is clear that these bias are something that develop overtime from childhood and are hard to change. One thing that came to mind while reading this article was one of my history classes and the discussion of Brown v. The Board of Education. In this landmark Supreme Court case the, “Doll Test,” was something used to evaluate the harmful effects of segregation to African American students. In the study they found that black children were more likely to favor the white doll over the black one, showcases this development of self inferiority in the black youth. Even today the same type of experiment has been re done many times in modern times. The data still reflects African American children’s feeling of inferiority towards their white counterparts. The Doll test while it showed the detrimental effects on young kids during the times of segregation, racial tensions have still had problems on today's youth. With implicit biases runding rampant the racial divisions have deepened. The Doll test has shown how psychologically African American childrens suffer from questioning their worthiness or doubting the success and ability of their race. This could be related to the increased number of African American students choosing to attend PWI s instead of HBCUs. Overtime some students believe that HBCUs are not capable of preparing the well enough for the real world and choose to attend PWI.


      It is true that a s a nation we have come a long way from explicit basis and racism and bias in our nation, however there is still the presence of implicit biases. These implicit biases have lasting effects on all of us. They not only cause unfair stereotypes towards other races but also to ourselves. By being aware of these biases we can overtime deal with them. It is evident that complete prejudice will never die. We can only deal with implicit biases that we are willing to accept are present or biases that w e are willing to accept are wrong or prejudicial. But, overtime we can work through these biases and at least be able to understand one another. For now, like tated in the article we have to find ways to eliminate our implicit biases in the reasoning process . Although this is a tough task in some respects it is quite doable in other areas like college and job applications and any type of performing arts audition. By eliminating the person's physical appearance to name, the individual is forced to only focus on the content of the person rather than being clouded by their impact biases of the person.


      Jasmine Re-Do Part: 4

      Delete
    5. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1FbXKVyjQCIqK1843fFTVOOIzQHaAYGFHQi2tY6BK854/edit?usp=sharing

      I think there is a art missing
      Jasmine

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  20. Jenifer,

    Test can hold many answers however not every answer is always correct. Yet there is some truth gained within tests regardless of whether or not we agree with the answer. The IAT are series of test that provide very simplistic structure of going about to answering questions which will determine your viewpoint in things such as race or religion or age. The way the data is collected however seems a bit too simplistic in the idea that you categorize things as “good” or as “bad.” An issue with that is you get so accustomed to categorizing a certain group as “good” or “bad” since the test tell you what is what in each section that when they ask you to switch it it is harder to re adapt to the changed system of the question and answer, resulting in not as accurate responses as you can have them. Data is very structured when it comes down to the basics of it. It is more of the factual and numb er side of reasoning and sometimes people don't care to agree or wish to ignore the factual side of things. Facts are an essential part in making an accurate decision and not agreeing with unsupported reasons. Although we may not like the results of certain test that does not mean that the results we got from our IAT test is false. The results were given based off of our responses to the question given so there is some truth involved in final conclusion of these tests. I think that in the end regardless of what the test say you are it all depends on how you feel about yourself because the choices we make is based upon our reasoning of why it is we do the things we do. Reason can be affected by morals, religion, culture, or the area we group up as. However these things don’t singularly affect your opinion on certain things. Although my religion is against gay marriages I strongly support it because of the school system I grew up in supporting gay relationships and not casting them aside.

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    1. Jenifer

      When it comes to implicit bias it can be hard for us to really know that we are doing it because of how subconscious we are about it. One of the articles I read was about the relationship between teacher and student and their opinion on the future success rate based off of race within their students. This made me recall the relationships I’ve had with my teachers over my years in the system. I’ve always gone to a predominately black school and ever since I could remember I always noticed that I was typically the teacher's favorite and although I know that I was always a good student I’m now questioning whether my skin complexion had anything to do with that. I am latina but a lot of people mistake me for white when they first meet me. Was I apart of implicit bias when I was a kid growing? Did my skin complexion give me an unfair advantage when forming relationships with those of authority? Advantages based off of skin complection still exist even as we get older. A specific case of a white privileged male raping an unconscious female and only getting charged six months in prison (three months in which he only served due to “good behaviour”) shows an example of implicit bias at its finest. Although implicit biases are typically subconscious thoughts we can most certainly see when others are performing it yet it can be difficult for us to know when we are doing it ourselves. We typically see ourselves in one way but that may not really be the case. The IAT are series of test that provide very simplistic structure of going about to answering questions which will determine your viewpoint in things such as race or religion or age. One IAT that I took determined that I was neutral when it came to all areas of religion. There was no specific religion that I believed was good and no one that I believed was bad. On the scale every religion lied right in the middle. Based off of this test does that mean my religion plays no part in the choices that I make in my everyday life? I always thought that I was a pretty religious person however I guess when I really look at the steps that I take I never really question what it is my faith would want me to do. I do what I think is right and that may not be a bad trait not to have implicit bias based off of my religion however it really makes me question how much faith I really have in my religion if that is not something I am asking. Questions such as what is right and wrong definitely play a part in what we perceive to be as good and bad. And much like how the IAT tested you by simply asking questions on whether or not what was presented was good or bad our implicit bias which defines these words played a part in the choices we made. When given the results we are shocked by the outcome but when we really look back at the choices we make and the actions we take the results seem pretty accurate and it makes sense that we would be shocked on the outcome because it is implicit bias we are not aware we are doing it when we do. Much like the implicit bias within science fields, especially doctors, who test their patients based off of the diseases each race is ‘known to have.’ Although this may sometimes be beneficial in ruling out diseases that may not be possible it can also cause false diagnoses or can rule out a disease that actually is the right diagnosis. Our choices can affect not only ourselves but others as well. The use of implicit bias can be both good and bad to an extent. So to what extent can we use implicit bias when making choices? Is it even possible to eliminate implicit bias as it is a subconscious way of thinking?

      Delete
  21. Jeneva

    Can implicit biases be reversed or undone, through exposure to the exact opposite of what the stereotype entails? Through reading both “So You Flunked A Racism Test. Now What?” and “When implicit bias Shapes Teachers expectations” my eyes were able to be opened to actual psychological aspects that pertain to racism and discrimination. Before reading the articles I never really understood why people are racist or act discriminatory towards others. I also never truly understood the impact that misconceptions and stereotypes of one group of people can have on the future and faith of them. While reading and actually grasping and understanding the impact, I had to stop and take a minute to take it all in, which lead to me bursting into tears. Bias as it relates it a teacher's expectation of a student are unintentional and are simply just another product of the brain categorizing complex information , according to the article. A teacher may only choose a particular group of students in the class to answer questions or even excuse others from turning in or doing homework due to a stereotype that all African American children come for a troubled home, or that homelife for them is so terrible that they can not take the time to complete their homework. The thing that upsets me the most and the driving force of my breakdown, is the fact that there are people in the Presidential elections, running to be President of the United States that use African Americans “statistics” in the campaign and make a mockery of them. How can one see errors in aspects of a population and decide to continue to tear them down? Teachers and other authoritative figures that are not helping the problems that relate to literacy issues or even early behavioral or social interaction issues among minority students are the main causes that these stereotypical ignorant biases are still present to this day. Some teachers may not know or realize this, but favoritism to a particular group of students can cause more bad than good. According to the article, unequal disciplinary actions “fuels the school to prison pipeline”. A child spends more time interacting and bonding with their teacher than their actual parents. Simply put, if a teacher continuously “puts a child down” or does not push them to their fullest potential, their future may not be as bright. I was on Facebook the other day and I saw this video that showed how a teacher's attitude towards children and they way they speak to them can affect the child’s overall experience in the classroom. The thing that I’m actually realizing, as I think back to the video, is that it incorporated Elementary school children because they look up to authoritative figures like teachers, counselors and even bus drivers.
    Implicit biases can be “reversed” in a sense. If you realize that they’re present, your mind can be trained to stop when you’re made aware of them. Implicit bias explains why some cops are more likely to shoot unarmed African Americans than they are Caucasians…(not saying that it’s justified of course). Fear is often times a driving force, many cops whether they are white or black have this preconceived idea that all African American men are thugs and dangerous beasts. Cops tend to take these drastic matters of utilizing their weapons and power for bad instead of good. For example, if Philando Castile of Minnesota was a Caucasian man who was licensed to carry instead of an African American man who was licensed to carry, would the police officer had reacted to the situation with such fear? Or if Castile’s dreads were a “slicked back blonde pony tail”, would the officer had shot and killed him in order to feel in control of the situation?.

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  22. Jeneva Part 2

    These are all hypothetical and actual real life situations in which implicit biases plays such a huge role that they end up being the cause for someone’s death. But there may be a solution to all of this. Stereotypes can be countered through associating the person or idea with the exact opposite notion of what the stereotype is. For example, instead of associating women with “weak or inferior”, they’re associated with words like “strong and driven”. In order for this to be effective, the process utilizes your auditory sense which helps with association. From experience in a Psychology class I know that numerous Psychological experiments incorporate audio so the subject will be able to associate a sound with the new stimuli. One downside to this experiment is that it’s only effective and will only work if the person wants to reverse their misconceptions, they have to tell their brain that they actually want to do. This is something that I never really understood until a couple days ago when my IB Biology teacher told a student that “you’re not sick until your mind tells you that you are”, your body may feel sick but if you tell yourself that you’re sick then you actually are. This is just an example of how powerful the mind actually is and how big of a role it plays in implicit biases. Another con is that the outcome may only last for about a week or two and there really isn’t a valid way to test that the process was actually effective.
    In conclusion, there are so many things that can affect a person’s implicit biases for example; religion, culture, demographics and media all play an important role in our everyday lives. For instance I know for me religion plays a role in my biases that pertain to gender. In the bible God made Eve from Adam’s rib which is basically God “setting in stone” in away that women are lesser than men, which in the 21st century is something that I try my hardest not to accept but in all honesty it lingers in the back of my mind. This past Sunday my Pastor began to preach about gender roles and how men are the head of the household and women should stay in their place. He also began to speak about churches and organizations that are started by women and how their intentions are ungodly. It really took everything in me to not walk out of that church right in the middle of his sermon. I know for a fact that many biases were created or supported that morning and I also know that they were others that questioned the pastor’s notions like I did. Implicit biases are all around us whether we know it or not and are often times the reasons for many of the discriminatory actions and problems in our world today.

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    1. Can implicit biases be reversed or undone, through exposure to the exact opposite of what the stereotype entails? Through reading both “So You Flunked A Racism Test. Now What?” and “When implicit bias Shapes Teachers expectations” my eyes were able to be opened to actual psychological aspects that pertain to racism and discrimination. I also gained a better understand of the strong role that language plays as it relates to implicit biases. Through reading, I learned that implicit biases could be countered through associating the person or idea with the exact opposite notion of what the stereotype is. For example, instead of associating women with “weak or inferior”, they’re associated with words like “strong and driven”. This is exactly what my art piece titled "Breaking Free" does. It uses words such as "independent, strong and hard-working" to describe an everyday woman. These word associations go against the stereotypes, hence the woman in the piece of art "Breaking Free" from the stereotype using positive character traits. In this example language was the focal point in reversing the stereotype and forcing a change on how women are viewed.
      Fear is often times a driving force, many cops whether they are white or black have this preconceived idea that all African American men are thugs and dangerous beasts. Cops tend to take these drastic matters of utilizing their weapons and power for bad instead of good. For example, if Philando Castile of Minnesota was a Caucasian man who was licensed to carry instead of an African American man who was licensed to carry, would the police officer had reacted to the situation with such fear? Or if Castile’s dreads were a “slicked back blonde pony tail”, would the officer had shot and killed him in order to feel in control of the situation?. In these situations language plays a huge role in actions taken by persons in power that lead to death. As seen through the Implicit Bias Tests, word association relates directly to how people are viewed because it is often these words that are the basis for how people describe others.
      In conclusion, there are so many things that can affect a person’s implicit biases for example; religion, culture, demographics and media all play an important role in our everyday lives. For instance, I know for me religion plays a role in my biases that pertain to gender. In the bible, God made Eve from Adam’s rib which is basically God “setting in stone” in a way that women are lesser than men, which in the 21st century is something that I try my hardest not to accept but in all honesty, it lingers in the back of my mind. This past Sunday my Pastor began to preach about gender roles and how men are the head of the household and women should stay in their place. He also began to speak about churches and organizations that are started by women and how their intentions are ungodly. The pastors use of language that degraded women shows how his religion is the basis for his implicit biases towards women. Not only does his religion shape his biases, but it also affects his choices of words and the careless use of such degrading words when speaking about his biases. I know for a fact that many biases were created or supported that morning and I also know that they were others that questioned the pastor’s notions like I did. Implicit biases are all around us whether we know it or not and are often times the reasons for many of the discriminatory actions and problems in our world today.

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  23. Claire

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is supposed to study and measure the strength in automatic relations that people make in their minds. The IAT evaluates concepts, such as race, skin tones, sexuality, religion, and gender with evaluations like good words and bad words. However, with the IAT comes many implications. The results from IAT are supposed to reveal our bias, biases that can be based off of judgment or behavior on a cognitive level. With the IAT, there is a possibility that some results may be invalid. Someone who is able to respond to questions and results faster may have a greater chance of producing results that do not necessarily represent that persons actually opinion/ thoughts. If a person taking the IAT knows what to expect with the test, then that can also affect how they think about the information before making their next move. Familiarity on a certain aspect of a particular concept can make it easier or harder for a person to associate particular evaluations with concepts. According to the IAT, I am a person who does not enjoy being around disabled individuals. I didn’t really know how to respond to the results because when I was completing the test, I never stopped to think that maybe I only associate abled individuals with good and disabled with bad. However, when I consider how familiarity affects results I realized that I may have been unable to link good words with disabled persons because I have never really been around many disabled people. I question the validity of the IAT, when I consider what I thought about while completing the test. Even when I completed my first test and did not know what I would be asked, I still thought of the IAT as more of a stimulation used to test how fast I could respond to directions. I did not think that it could really represent how I really felt if I was not completely focused on the context of the images and words. In an article that observed whether or not the IAT really measured racial prejudice they considered whether or not your results are worth worrying over. They concluded that if we are able to automatically transfer certain aspects and people with our in-group then we can decrease the amount of prejudice exhibited. They said that maybe “individual differences in the IAT really are just measuring differences in intelligence and the ability to exert cognitive control and that is the pertinent factor that is related to overt prejudice.” However, that leaves the question of whether or not the IAT and or prejudice responses takes into consideration similar intelligence levels but different cognitive feedback.

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    1. Claire
      The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is supposed to study and measure the strength in automatic relations that people make in their minds. The IAT evaluates concepts, such as race, skin tones, sexuality, religion, and gender with evaluations like good words and bad words. However, with the IAT comes many implications. The results from IAT are supposed to reveal our bias, biases that can be based off of judgment or behavior on a cognitive level. With the IAT, there is a possibility that some results may be invalid. Someone who is able to respond to questions and results faster may have a greater chance of producing results that do not necessarily represent that persons actually opinion/ thoughts. If a person taking the IAT knows what to expect with the test, then that can also affect how they think about the information before making their next move. Familiarity on a certain aspect of a particular concept can make it easier or harder for a person to associate particular evaluations with concepts. Our strategies in decision making can use the cognitive system, which can be applied to more than just test. Even in our everyday life, we apply good and bad judgements to the concepts and aspects around us. In what is called the ‘halo effect’ shows us how we often will subconsciously apply certain judgements to even the foods that we eat on day to day basis. We will often put our focus on foods that are labeled in ways that appeal to our emotions and regardless if it is just a label, we gravitate towards that. According to the IAT, I am a person who does not enjoy being around disabled individuals. I didn’t really know how to respond to the results because when I was completing the test, I never stopped to think that maybe I only associate abled individuals with good and disabled with bad. However, when I consider how familiarity affects results I realized that I may have been unable to link good words with disabled persons because I have never really been around many disabled people. I question the validity of the IAT, when I consider what I thought about while completing the test. Even when I completed my first test and did not know what I would be asked, I still thought of the IAT as more of a stimulation used to test how fast I could respond to directions. I did not think that it could really represent how I really felt if I was not completely focused on the context of the images and words. In an article that observed whether or not the IAT really measured racial prejudice they considered whether or not your results are worth worrying over. They concluded that if we are able to automatically transfer certain aspects and people with our in-group then we can decrease the amount of prejudice exhibited. In saying that “individual differences in the IAT really are just measuring differences in intelligence and the ability to exert cognitive control and that is the pertinent factor that is related to overt prejudice,” Cognitive control can apply to our ability to switch from different thoughts and actions. With that being said, many researchers have looked into what situations may result in a heightened cognitive control. With people who are bilingual, it is said that they may have a heightened cognitive control, due to them having to switch between different languages and understandings. The possibility for people to have different levels of cognitive control can even the rate of conditions that a person may develop. In other words heightened cognitive control can genially affect the wiring of the brain because it is being used in a different way.

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  24. Mabel.
    Explicit bias can be defined as what we think about when we think about groups with bias or prejudice, by linking groups to negative stereotypes in a hostile way, which has an impacts on the person’s perception and behavior. But with implicit bias, it resembles many of the characteristics of explicit, however these thoughts are not done with hostility, but done outside of conscious awareness. Our implicit bias is influenced by stereotypes shown in the media, or beliefs passed on by parents as well as the people in our community. This basically sets our way of thinking when it comes to the association of different groups. While taking the implicit test, I noticed that for the test I took (age), would start off by telling me to press E for old people and I for young, and then they would switch it. After that, they would tell me words that represent what they felt were “good” and “bad”, and told me to press E for the bad and I for the good, and then switching it off. I noticed that by the test doing this, it was setting my way of thinking, so when they switched the choices making good correlate with old and young with bad, I was not used to it and got many errors, because I was so used to the association being the other was around. The resulted in the test concluding that I favor young people over old. In the first article I read, it talked about how whether a teacher believed in their children or not has an affect on how well the student does in school, as if the teacher put more effort into the students they believe in, whereas their expectations were influenced by implicit bias. A test was taken and showed that when it comes to white teachers, the majority of them predicted that their black students will probably not graduate from college. Teachers unintentionally treat students differently due to stereotypes. But once people are aware of their implicit bias, they can be successfully addressed. You would have to train your mind to catch itself as if you are breaking a bad habit. However, stereotypes are based on some sort of truth so it is important to view the students and other just a equal individuals. A major example of implicit bias would be race crime and how police link African Americans to crime, violence and aggression. This has been tested to be true regardless of the race of the police. I think this ties back to the influence in the media and our peers that leads us to doing so. What I found interesting was how racism is not only done to black people but also done through black people. When black people were asked which race they prefer, they would say their race of course. But when IAT showed that they subconsciously slightly prefer whites over blacks. This is due to the negative association put on black people and their culture and how we see black people ourselves. A normal response to the oppressed is to go with the standard of dominant culture so that they can be more open to equal treatment. This means rejecting their own race due to media and how they are portrayed in the community. Their implicit bias affects how they real about their own race.

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    1. Our implicit bias is influenced by stereotypes shown in the media, or beliefs passed on by parents as well as the people in our community. This basically sets our way of thinking when it comes to the association of different groups. While taking the implicit test, I noticed that for the test I took (age), would start off by telling me to press E for old people and I for young, and then they would switch it. After that, they would tell me words that represent what they felt were “good” and “bad”, and told me to press E for the bad and I for the good, and then switching it off. I noticed that by the test doing this, it was setting my way of thinking, so when they switched the choices making good correlate with old and young with bad, I was not used to it and got many errors, because I was so used to the association being the other was around. The resulted in the test concluding that I favor young people over old. In the first article I read, it talked about how whether a teacher believed in their children or not has an affect on how well the student does in school, as if the teacher put more effort into the students they believe in, whereas their expectations were influenced by implicit bias. A test was taken and showed that when it comes to white teachers, the majority of them predicted that their black students will probably not graduate from college. Teachers unintentionally treat students differently due to stereotypes. But once people are aware of their implicit bias, they can be successfully addressed. You would have to train your mind to catch itself as if you are breaking a bad habit. However, stereotypes are based on some sort of truth so it is important to view the students and other just a equal individuals. A major example of implicit bias would be race crime and how police links African Americans to crime, violence and aggression. This has been tested to be true regardless of the race of the police. I think this ties back to the influence in the media and our peers that leads us to doing so. What I found interesting was how racism is not only done to black people but also done through black people. When black people were asked which race they prefer, they would say their race of course. But when IAT showed that they subconsciously slightly prefer whites over blacks. This is due to the negative association put on black people and their culture and how we see black people ourselves. A normal response to the oppressed is to go with the standard of dominant culture so that they can be more open to equal treatment. This means rejecting their own race due to media and how they are portrayed in the community. Their implicit bias affects how they feel about their own race. Our biases can creep on us whether we notice it or not. For me personally, thinking back into prior situations, my implicit bias causes my to make swift generalization about certain races. I don't consider myself to not like that group or have hatred towards them, but because of what I have been told it heard, these assumptions pop into my head. For example when it comes to Hispanics,people around me (no names) used to describes them as roughians, rough drivers, loose with their children and allows them to run free. As a result of this, from time to time,I associated this group of people with the predetermined opinions that I have been told. Just as the the test was setting would set my way of thinking.
      -mabel

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  25. Aniyah

    The implications of the tests were to show whether or not the test taker displayed slight, moderate, or severe prejudice about a group of people due to labels, stereotypes, biases. (old, young, dark skin, light skin, gay, straight, etc) I ended up taking two tests from the IATS and it showed that I unconsciously believed in certain stereotypes about 3 groups. For instance, one of the results showed that I moderately prefer the company of Dark skinned people over light skin and I realized it is was true, I was more comfortable around people who had similar skin color to mine because I felt I did not have to worry about my safety to an extent when it came to racial topics. The test also implicated that I slightly related white people with weapons, I was not as surprised with this result because of the social media I consume I have seen many videos and read many articles depicting white people in some shape or form being a potential threat to the poc present and there is also the fact the media I see tends to make memes that make fun of the "white kid takes a gun to school and gets trigger happy" and this plays a part of in some of stereotypes I hold about white people. The implications behind the articles I read talks about how that if you took the test it showed that you were sexist, homophobic, and racist and what should be done after finding out. It explained that although there is no antidote for prejudice it is possible for someone to take anti-bias training. The generally concept behind the article is that no one is prejudice free and that we are all going through the process of unlearning the bias we have been fed. The implications behind the second article were that black people were just as guilty for oppressing their people. One quote caught my eyes. "Too often, racism is seen as a social phenomenon that happens to black people. But it happens through black people as well." I agree with it because sometimes when I'm on a social media site I will check a person's account and sometimes they would say something a long the lines of "black people act in such provocative way and wonder why white people don't respect us." and continues on to say that if we acted more respectable we would get the respect we want from white people. And it blows my mind because I have heard this on numerous occasions, from a stranger's to a friend's mouth and I realized that white people are not the only factor in the way black people are subjugated.

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    1. Aniyah

      The implications behind the IATS tests implied that I moderately prefer the company of dark skin people over light skin people, this is true because I have noticed that I feel comfortable around people with similar skin tones as I because I've grown used to living around people who look like me and feel awkward being around people who don't. For instance, once I went to a robotics competition and was overwhelmed when I noticed there were a majority of white people, I was highly uncomfortable whenever they tried to talk about racial topics because I subconsciously did not feel safe talking about such matters with them. This connects with another result I got which was that I slightly relate white people with weapons, this implicates that I see white people as threats and this is due to the media I consume. For instance, I follow a lot of black twitter accounts and the content depicts white people posing as some a threat against pocs, a popular one is the "white kid takes a gun to school and gets trigger happy." which fuels my bias against white people. The implications behind the articles were that no matter what we say or think we possess some sort of bias. (sexism, racist, homophobic) Therefore the problem is not having bias the problem is learning how to unlearn the stereotypes we have grown up with. Another implication is that the people being stereotyped against are not free of bias either. For instance, black people are racist against each other, I have witness this whenever my father states that it is because of us acting "ghetto" that people have stereotypes against us and we fuel them or whenever I hear a peer stating that if we did x,y, and z then blacks would not have such a big stigma against us. Therefore, the group being subjugated against also enforce the stigma against them.






























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  26. Implicit bias according to the first article is, attitudes or stereotypes that are activated unconsciously and involuntarily. The most striking idea from the articles I read was the stereotypical biases and how the African American racial group are one of the biggest targets of the implicit bias concept. The first three articles all present information on how African Americans are rated compared to other groups. In the first article, a survey was conducted amongst teachers to see the level of education African Americans were expected to attain post high school and the results showed that white teachers were less likely to predict that the specific student will attain a collegiate education. Black teachers on the other hand had higher expectations of their racial group. From a personal standpoint, although I can’t justify the selections made by these teachers due to the factors that influenced their decision, their reasoning behind these choices are understandable to a certain extent. The article seems to promote the Inconsistent comparison fallacy where due to the behavior of these students there’s a false assumption that they won’t have any post high school education. There have been several attempts to find the correct anecdote for implicit bias, several scientific bias have tested out different approaches but found that it’s temporary. Awareness being one of the first steps in reducing the implicit biases, the teachers who felt that these individual black students were least likely to have any collegiate degree also need to look at their influences and what they are doing. Their actions or lack of actions can be one of the reasons why these students might not have any further education. Several test have been conducted to see people’s unconscious prejudice, even as an African American when I recently took the test the results stated that I have a preference for whites over black. I can’t really assess the validity of these results but the test led to a self-realization. I was instructed to link the words “bad” or “good” with white or black and the results I received were very shocking. Looking back on the test I can see why these results were what they were. Living in a predominately black area my experiences and encounters are mostly limited to blacks, meaning I was most likely to favor the out groups because my encounters are minimal with them and even with that aside their portrayal in the media are linked with “good” while blacks are linked with “bad.” The words under good were joy, love, peace, and wonderful and the “bad” consisted of phrases like agony, terrible and horrible. My perception on whites all my life contains the “good” due to my lack of encounters with them and the latter I most likely link with blacks. My overall conclusion from the test is that the interpretation of these results do not reflect on how I treat both blacks and whites, I would admit that in my upbringing I did have lots of respect for whites simple because I saw them mostly on television rather than in real life, but that doesn’t mean I viewed blacks any lesser, my treatments are individual based rather than the wholesome and just because I linked the negative words with blacks does not entail that I have a preference for the other racial groups, all that means is that I know blacks more than I know whites. The results aren’t in direct correlation with my feelings but it’s understandable.

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    1. Implicit bias according to the first article is, attitudes or stereotypes that are activated unconsciously and involuntarily. The most striking idea from the articles I read was the stereotypical biases and how the African American racial group are one of the biggest targets of the implicit bias concept. The first three articles all present information on how African Americans are rated compared to other groups. In the first article, a survey was conducted amongst teachers to see the level of education African Americans are expected/predicted to attain post high school and the results showed that white teachers were less likely to predict that the specific student will attain a collegiate education. Black teachers on the other hand had higher expectations of their racial group. The black teachers being more optimistic towards the future of these students can be a result of their implicit bias as their judgement may have been unconsciously influenced by the fact that they are also black. For example, as an avid soccer fan there have been instances in my life where I have myself becoming a fan of a certain player, prior to this section I didn’t really look at it from a racial standpoint but I am not realizing that I tend to be more optimistic or favor African players in hope that they will do something great while representing Africa in Europe. Same thing can be said about this teacher as she probably has high hopes for these students because they see the societal structure and lack of progress in educated black men. From a personal standpoint, although I can’t justify the selections made by these teachers due to the factors that influenced their decision, their reasoning behind these choices are understandable to a certain extent. The article seems to promote the Inconsistent comparison fallacy where due to the behavior of these students there’s a false assumption that they won’t have any post high school education. There have been several attempts to find the correct anecdote for implicit bias, several scientific bias have tested out different approaches but found that it’s temporary. Awareness being one of the first steps in reducing the implicit biases, the teachers who felt that these individual black students were least likely to have any collegiate degree also need to look at their influences and what they are doing. Their actions or lack of support can be one of the reasons why these students might not have any further education. Several test have been conducted to see people’s unconscious prejudice, even as an African American when I recently took the test the results stated that I have a preference for whites over black. I can’t really assess the validity of these results but the test led to a self-realization. I was instructed to link the words “bad” or “good” with white or black and the results I received were very shocking. Looking back on the test I can see why these results were what they were. Living in a predominately black area my experiences and encounters are mostly limited to blacks, meaning I was most likely to favor the out groups because my encounters are minimal with them and even with that aside their portrayal in the media are linked with “good” while blacks are linked with “bad.” In multiple incidents involving young black men, Michael Brown’s brutal murder for example led a twitter campaign hash tagged “IfTheyGunnedMeDown which picture would the media use,” there have been multiple situations in the media where they opted to use pictures of young black men showing gang signs or inappropriate displays rather than opting to use pictures that portray who they really are, one kid for example posted a picture of him in his

      Jefferson

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    2. Implicit bias according to the first article is, attitudes or stereotypes that are activated unconsciously and involuntarily. The most striking idea from the articles I read was the stereotypical biases and how the African American racial group are one of the biggest targets of the implicit bias concept. The first three articles all present information on how African Americans are rated compared to other groups. In the first article, a survey was conducted amongst teachers to see the level of education African Americans are expected/predicted to attain post high school and the results showed that white teachers were less likely to predict that the specific student will attain a collegiate education. Black teachers on the other hand had higher expectations of their racial group. The black teachers being more optimistic towards the future of these students can be a result of their implicit bias as their judgement may have been unconsciously influenced by the fact that they are also black. For example, as an avid soccer fan there have been instances in my life where I have myself becoming a fan of a certain player, prior to this section I didn’t really look at it from a racial standpoint but I am not realizing that I tend to be more optimistic or favor African players in hope that they will do something great while representing Africa in Europe. Same thing can be said about this teacher as she probably has high hopes for these students because they see the societal structure and lack of progress in educated black men. From a personal standpoint, although I can’t justify the selections made by these teachers due to the factors that influenced their decision, their reasoning behind these choices are understandable to a certain extent. The article seems to promote the Inconsistent comparison fallacy where due to the behavior of these students there’s a false assumption that they won’t have any post high school education. There have been several attempts to find the correct anecdote for implicit bias, several scientific bias have tested out different approaches but found that it’s temporary. Awareness being one of the first steps in reducing the implicit biases, the teachers who felt that these individual black students were least likely to have any collegiate degree also need to look at their influences and what they are doing. Their actions or lack of support can be one of the reasons why these students might not have any further education. Several test have been conducted to see people’s unconscious prejudice, even as an African American when I recently took the test the results stated that I have a preference for whites over black. I can’t really assess the validity of these results but the test led to a self-realization. I was instructed to link the words “bad” or “good” with white or black and the results I received were very shocking. Looking back on the test I can see why these results were what they were. Living in a predominately black area my experiences and encounters are mostly limited to blacks, meaning I was most likely to favor the out groups because my encounters are minimal with them and even with that aside their portrayal in the media are linked with “good” while blacks are linked with “bad.” In multiple incidents involving young black men, Michael Brown’s brutal murder for example led a twitter campaign hash tagged “IfTheyGunnedMeDown which picture would the media use,” there have been multiple situations in the media where they opted to use pictures of young black men showing gang signs or inappropriate displays rather than opting to use pictures that portray who they really are, one kid for example posted a picture of him in his

      Jefferson

      Delete
    3. military clothes reading to kids and other of him showing a gang sign and questioned integrity of these media outlets. The media tends to use pictures that diminishes the person’s character when it comes to Caucasians in similar situation. These are just examples of biases, whether they are done consciously or unconsciously varies on the person. The words under good were joy, love, peace, and wonderful and the “bad” consisted of phrases like agony, terrible and horrible. My perception on whites all my life contains the “good” due to my lack of encounters with them and the latter I most likely link with blacks. My overall conclusion from the test is that the interpretation of these results do not reflect on how I treat both blacks and whites, I would admit that in my upbringing I did have lots of respect for whites simple because I saw them mostly on television rather than in real life, but that doesn’t mean I viewed blacks any lesser, my treatments are individual based rather than the wholesome and just because I linked the negative words with blacks does not entail that I have a preference for the other racial groups, all that means is that I know blacks more than I know whites. The results aren’t in direct correlation with my feelings but it’s understandable, it shows a bias in itself as it does not even allow you to go back and review certain answers. For example, let’s say hypothetically I thought I hated a certain race but according to this test I actually have a preference for that race when compared to my own race, can this test act as a gateway in changing my perception or will I simply just debunk the results?
      The second article addresses ways in which scientists have tried to combat racism, a research project has tried to fight racism through sleep in which the certain words are linked to a group of people. The problem is scientists still aren’t sure if changing their results on these tests will change how they react to some people. For example pertaining to the whole situation with the Self-Hating Jews. Would this test change how they felt towards their own race? To conclude this whole account of information, the racial implications whether consciously or unconsciously varies based on experiences and these implicit tests are a direct reflection of how you feel about a certain group of people because how can we fully test validity of these tests if they were also created by humans who could possibly have implicit biases.
      Jefferson

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  27. Tamara
    Project Implicit is a non-profit organization and international collaboration between researchers who are interested in implicit social cognition - thoughts and feelings outside of conscious awareness and control. The goal of the organization is to educate the public about hidden biases and to provide a “virtual laboratory” for collecting data on the Internet. Project Implicit was founded in 1998 by three scientists – Tony Greenwald (University of Washington), Mahzarin Banaji(Harvard University), and Brian Nosek (University of Virginia). The Implicit Association Test (IAT) are used to report your attitudes toward or beliefs about these topics, and provide some general information about yourself. These demonstrations should be more valuable if you have also tried to describe your self-understanding of the characteristic that the IAT is designed to measure. The IAT tests that I took was the weapons IAT and sexuality IAT. My results of the weapons IAT was that I had a slight association of Black Americans with weapons compared to White Americans. After taking the test I had similar questions discussed in the article, "Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias" by Theodore R. Johnson. I wondered to myself, "Does it mean harboring a subconscious contempt for my race?" The IAT measures the ability to quickly and correctly sort selected words as positive and negative as well as pictures of weapons and harmless objects and to distinguish faces as belonging to a white or black person. Racism is a concept that operates on both an individual and institutional level. These types of implicit prejudices against blacks may help explain why cops are more likely to shoot unarmed black men than to shoot unarmed white men. From the results of the test I became fully aware that negative associations thrust upon black people and black culture can implicitly affect how we black people view each other. My results for the sexuality IAT is that I had a preference for straight people over gay people. I tend to associate more with people who are heterosexual but know people who are homosexual. The article, Does the Implicit Association Test (IAT) Really Measure Racial Prejudice?" by Scott Barry Kaufman, explains that the IAT-effect is a result of the human capacity to associate positive stimuli more easily with their in-group, and negative stimuli more easily with their out-group. People tend to believe fallacies (mistaken beliefs) due to confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is the mind's tendency to pick and choose information that supports their preconceptions. We should be very careful how different groups are portrayed in the media, schools, and society. Reason can be used to build knowledge and to evaluate it beyond our experiences.

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    1. Tamara
      The Implicit Association Test (IAT) are used to measure attitudes and beliefs that people are not conscious of. The IAT tests that I took was the weapons IAT and sexuality IAT. My results of the weapons IAT was that I had a slight association of Black Americans with weapons compared to White Americans. After taking the test I had similar questions discussed in the article, "Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias" by Theodore R. Johnson. I wondered to myself, "Does it mean I am harboring a subconscious contempt for my race?" The IAT measures the ability to quickly and correctly sort selected words as positive and negative as well as pictures of weapons and harmless objects and to distinguish faces as belonging to a white or black person. It is hypothesized that participants' reaction time will be faster when responding to African American faces paired with weapons and Caucasian faces paired with objects compared to Caucasian faces paired with weapons and African American faces paired with objects. Racism is a concept that operates on both an individual and institutional level. These types of implicit prejudices against blacks help explain why cops are more likely to shoot unarmed black men than to shoot unarmed white men. From the results of the test I became fully aware that negative associations thrust upon black people and black culture can implicitly affect how we black people view each other. Due to biased media coverage it can cause stereotypes and misperceptions, overcriminalizing and marginalizing African Americans through language and images. Media bias not only negatively impacts black America’s relationship with law enforcement and the judicial system but also extends to how African Americans are perceived in society at large. Racial perceptions of crime, combined with other factors, have led to the disparate punishment of people of color. My results for the sexuality IAT is that I had a moderate automatic preference for straight people over gay people. I figured I would get these results because I tend to associate more with people who are heterosexual than who are homosexual. The article, Does the Implicit Association Test (IAT) Really Measure Racial Prejudice?" by Scott Barry Kaufman, explains that the IAT-effect is a result of the human capacity to associate positive stimuli more easily with their in-group, and negative stimuli more easily with their out-group. Despite my test results I still respect people no matter what sexuality that identity with and do not discriminate against them for that.

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  28. Hannah
    I took the weight implicit test and my results showed that I had a strong automatic preference for thin people over fat people. Of course I was in denial of these results; just as anyone would feel about results they do not agree upon. However, I am beginning to realize that these results may contain some truth. The questions on the test were clearly made in a way to try and “trick” the audience but I must admit these tricks did have some truth factors to them. One of the questions asked if I associate myself thin people more-so than thick people or vise versa. This allowed me to actually realize that most of my immediate group of friends are thin; which is similar to my own structure. This realization demonstrated the implication that people often associate themselves with others who are relatively similar to them. Therefore, implicit biases are made against the “other” group whom you do not favor. Personally, I, and many others, unconsciously start relationships with friends who I know have many things in common with me because I will be able to easily relate to them. So when I see that someone has characteristics not very similar to my own, I tend to stay away. These implications were also shown in Article 1 when the experiment with the teachers was discussed. Racial biases separate from this are often present, however I feel as though they all lead back to this idea as the source. The white teachers are prejudice and pessimistic against black students, but not this way toward white students because they are not like them. It may not seem this way in the minds of some of these teachers, but these implicit biases are constantly shown. This relates to possible explanations as to why police are more likely to shoot an unarmed black man than to shoot an unarmed white man; mentioned in Article 2. Most of these cases involve a white man shooting the unarmed black man in the most ridiculous scenarios. From this, implications can be drawn that the reason for these attacks is that the white cops favor people of their color, as they as similar to them; therefore thinking of them as “better” than the blacks and creating biases in their head. This idea of evaluating the quality of others based on their own characteristics is what leads to stereotypes and labels given to others. You often think of yourself and your lifestyle as the “right” way so this automatically creates implicit biases to anything other than your own preference.

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    Replies
    1. Hannah
      I took the weight implicit test and my results showed that I had a strong automatic preference for thin people over fat people. Of course I was in denial of these results; just as anyone would feel about results they do not agree upon. However, I am beginning to realize that these results may contain some truth. The questions on the test were clearly made in a way to try and “trick” the audience but I must admit these tricks did have some truth factors to them. One of the questions asked if I associate myself thin people more-so than thick people or vise versa. This allowed me to actually realize that most of my immediate group of friends are thin; which is similar to my own structure. This realization demonstrated the implication that people often associate themselves with others who are relatively similar to them. Therefore, implicit biases are made against the “other” group whom you do not favor. Personally, I, and many others, unconsciously start relationships with friends who I know have many things in common with me because I will be able to easily relate to them. So when I see that someone has characteristics not very similar to my own, I tend to stay away. These implications were also shown in Article 1 when the experiment with the teachers was discussed. Racial biases separate from this are often present, however I feel as though they all lead back to this idea as the source. The white teachers are prejudice and pessimistic against black students, but not this way toward white students because they are not like them. It may not seem this way in the minds of some of these teachers, but these implicit biases are constantly shown. This relates to possible explanations as to why police are more likely to shoot an unarmed black man than to shoot an unarmed white man; mentioned in Article 2. Most of these cases involve a white man shooting the unarmed black man in the most ridiculous scenarios. From this, implications can be drawn that the reason for these attacks is that the white cops favor people of their color, as they are similar to them; therefore thinking of them as “better” than the blacks and creating biases in their head. This idea of evaluating the quality of others based on their own characteristics is what leads to stereotypes and labels given to others. You often think of yourself and your lifestyle as the “right” way so this automatically creates implicit biases to anything other than your own preference. When emotion is incorporated in decision making, implicit biases can come into play. Your own personal experiences can plant a specific emotion against something, furthermore creating biases towards it. For instance, if you have a traumatic encounter with someone of the opposite race, chances are your view on this entire race will alter. The emotional connection towards people of this race will most likely relate to that of the first negative encounter. In history class we learned that Russia is a very protective and paranoid country. This causes them to base their decisions around the thought that everyone wishes to attack them. Reasons for these actions include the many times that they have been brutally attacked by other forces. Due to these attacks they refuse to remain vulnerable and now make decisions for the country that ensure their protection from others because the emotion of fear has been put into them. This example demonstrates their biases towards other countries, even if the other force does not mean any harm.

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  29. Inquiries: To what extent does confirmation bias play a role in luxury spending habits?
    Is emotion the main component of debating, or is it reason?
    How does collective intelligence play a role in the social development of school-age children?
    Suggest: This selection expands into the reason and emotion TOK chapters through the social studies made by scientists. One of the interesting aspects of this reading is based on the idea that our choice of decisions that look rational, is actually preventing us from making truly rational decisions. The confirmation bias of wanting to get a good deal on buying a phone was demonstrated in a picture. The study done on this had shown that while people only needed the basic set, they would choose advanced given out of the three options to feel as if they had saved money. The true rational decision would have been to keep the basic set if you didn't intend to use up the space. Emotion is the main component of debating,while reason is what's used in order to defend your position. The text supports this through the group study, and the study on adding disgust to a topic. The group studies had shown that when you place people who tend towards emotions, the group could get through the problems better. The disgust study had shown that placing the emotion of disgust on a topic caused harsher judgement to be given by the people in the study. Additionally,the reason chapter in TOK discusses how in reasoning, fallacies can begin to occur when your emotion is linked to what your perception is being focused on. The fallacy of appealing to fear is an example. Collective Intelligence can be present in the role of schoolchildren. It could be taught through more group projects, with an activity that follows up on what the students have learned. The chapter points out that while collective intelligence is great for solving problems, it could possibly lead to groupthink. While that only occasionally could happen, researchers stated that collective thinking in students actually improved on tasks getting done. This process is similar to group land done in school, or working on math problems together. Complex problems can become simplified when everyone participates in the session.
    Expand: In theory of knowledge, we often read that different ways of thinking can improve our work ethic, how we learn etc. Usually the thinking patterns include thinking without emotion, stepping out of confirmation bias, or using purely logic or a collective group working together. In this particular reading, I want to know more implications that stem from researchers attempting to stem the idea of logical thinking. Does this lead to a disconnect from empathy? Also, is thinking with emotion truly inhibiting, or does it have its pros and cons like all the other ways of knowing. I would like to expand more into the idea of collective intelligence through possible tests done in group work versus working alone.

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  30. Beltine
    In TOK, i took the implicit bias test. Before hand, I had no idea of what it tested or the purpose of the test. I took the test having to do with age: old or young. As I took the test i noticed that bad words were associated with the young and good words were associated with the old. My mind was being trained to look these people depending on their age a certain way. After i finished the exam, results showed that i prefered young people than old people. At first i thought, okay it maybe because i’m a teenager myself and i get along pretty well with my peers. But after listening to my classmates during the class results, i began to disagree with my results. I know that i would treat elders with more respect and care than the young, and i also felt that based on the language used to describe the ages, i was forced to chose the letters i chose. Whenever I tried to go against the option, my choice was marked incorrect.
    After reading So You Flunked A Racism Test. Now What?(article 2) and Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias(article 3), I realized that both authors didn’t like the results they received. Article 2 suggests that scientist find some method to change the human mind into thinking less bias and stereotypical. Researchers at Northwestern University did a study where they looked to see if they could remedy racism and sexism during sleep. It seemed to work, but a conclusion was made that it worked only on those that cooperated and wanted it to work. I honestly don’t believe that science can help fix racism, it could play a hand in suppressing it, but it can’t stop it. Article 3 on the other hand focuses on the results a black man received after taking the implicit biased test. His results showed that he favored whites over blacks, just like me, after seeing his results he took the test multiple times to get the results he wanted. After he understood the purpose of the exam, he came to a conclusion that the way media projects African Americans tend to be negative. Theres the stereotype that blacks are criminal and whites have value. I believe that these stereotypes are what led him to feel it was mostly true, he was influenced by his surrounding, movies, books, and anything that influences one.
    I think the implicit bias test speaks on the hidden truth, it even speaks on our true selves. Science can’t change who you are and what you believe, only you can do that. Its up to us to change the stereotypes and biases by first respecting everyone and their differences.

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  31. Beltine 1
    I live in a world where people say, your race, gender, and sex doesn’t matter. I’m raised in a world where i’ve been told, your place of origin, faith , and language gets you further. As i grow and become more educated, i’ve began to realize , all these sayings are lies. I’m no longer blinded, i’m starting to get a taste of reality. I actually live in a world where EVERYTHING matters.
    I was born and raised in West Africa, Specifically cameroon, I came to America at the age of 7. The first 5 years in America was the hardest, I heard the most disgusting, ignorant and rude comments of africans in those years. Maybe it was because of the stage of life i was in or the school I attended, the fact of the matter is no one should have to hear such vulgar words I heard. To start off, back in africa.caucasians were held on a pedestal, many saw them as the purest, neatest, and most educated group of people. So I came to america with the same train of thought which lasted until 3rd grade. I attended a well interracial elementary school. In the 3 years i spent in the school, i was trained to dislike myself and my place of origin. I and many other africans were seen as Illiterate, poor, and African. According to them being african was bad. For awhile i thought the same, but as i went through middle school and into high school, things began to change. I began to see that students who were african like me showed a lot of pride, they celebrated the fact that they were african. I began to do the same because i was tired of hiding. As i’m growing i keep thinking about my elementary school years, how is it that little children know to discriminate against others? Where did these stereotypes come from and why are they instilled in us at such a young age?
    They say our conscience are our true selves and they keep what we want to stay hidden, hidden until they are forced to come out. Everyone is groomed differently, some are raised under poor conditions and others under rich conditions. I believe that depending on which condition you are raised under, you develop certain Stereotypes and biases, some known and others unknown. Forinstance, blacks and other raises that aren’t white are raised being told that they have to work 10x harder to get the job of a white man (known bias) and females were raised being told that men are the providers and women are the caregivers (known bias). As for unknown biases, also known as implicit bias, it's the hidden “truth”, unconscious stereotypes, we all have it but it takes a lot for us to verbally say it. For instance, In TOK, I took the implicit bias test and my results showed that i prefered young people than old people. At first I thought, okay it maybe because i’m a teenager myself and i get along pretty well with my peers. As i forced myself to think deeper about my results i realized maybe it was correct because of my childhood experiences with elderly people. When i was in cameroon. I spend most of my time in the village with my grandparents, I saw them so often that I thought they were annoying and they couldn’t do anything on their own. I didn’t like that they relied on me so much to do basic things. Thinking back, the long term memories had stored of these experiences with my grandparents led to the results of the test.

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  32. Beltine 2
    Race,gender, and language matter partially because of Bias and stereotypes. I live in a world that categorizes people without trying to know who these people are. According to people you have to be a certain way to fit a persona. For instance Meursault in the stranger was judged on his character and not his crime. He was an outcast in the world, and because people found it different and odd, he should be killed. There are stereotypes of everyone, some more than others for instance there's a stereotype that blacks are criminals and whites have value. I believe that these stereotypes are influenced by our surrounding, movies, books, and anything that influences one. I think the implicit bias test speaks on the hidden truth, it even speaks on our true selves. Science can’t change who you are and what you believe, only you can do that. Its up to us to change the stereotypes and biases by first respecting everyone and their differences. Stereotypes and biases can only stop if human beings chang by become more accepting and less judgmental.

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  33. Efi

    https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ekaop8Ac6CYKQ2RpQeoTawOJb7iJ78_dBqAGLZxiIP8/edit?usp=drive_web

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  34. Efi

    https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ekaop8Ac6CYKQ2RpQeoTawOJb7iJ78_dBqAGLZxiIP8/edit?usp=drive_web

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Thanks for posting!!

Swift