Friday, February 21, 2014

Week of 2/24/14 & Week of 4/3/14:Language Continued & Start of Perception

Recap of this week:

We read and annotated the language chapter
We explored language through a seminar on an excerpt from Metaphors We Live By
We discussed whether or not body language was alternative or complementary
We worked in groups on how language shapes thought & whether it is unique to human beings


Homework due Friday [[Monday (field trip) Wednesday (SAT)]]:

1. Using the site Culture Crossing to complete the following and post in comments section:

~Select a country that you know little to nothing about
~Explore the subtopics of basics, business, and students
~Describe the similarities and differences between your country of exploration and customs here
~Discuss what you found interesting, shocking, and/or thought-provoking
~Reminder for posts: anonymous+first name+3A+post (draft in word first)


2.  Article Readings by Teacher Assignment (I will email all 4):

~Mathematics & Language: Is Mathematics Universal? 
(LaShawnda, Madalyn, Obichi, Jemuel, Uchechi & Stanley)

~Gender & Language:  You Are What You Say 
(Sunny, AK, Fitsume, Tunji, Nnedi, Jocelyn M.)

~Culture & Body Language:  China/USA Differences 
(Asia, Jocelyn N, Jesus, Ephraim, Alicia& Adriana)

~Music & Language: Exploring the Mysteries of Conducting 
(Jazmine, Jennifer, Catherine E, Abigail, Ashley & Stanley)

~Body Language & Perception: Amy Cuddy Video
(Rebeca, Catherine O, Kelly, Constance, Vaskia, Alyssa, & Telani)


Come prepared to discuss the following:

1.  10 important points from the article
2.  2 Questions about the information presented
3.  Implications of information that is presented

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Tuesday 3/4/14:  2nd Seminar on Text in Google Drive:  Umbrellaology 

1.  What is the most important sentence/phrase?  Explain your thinking.
2.  What is the nature of science?  Explain your thinking?
3.   Is Umbrellalogy a science? What role does language play in the text? Explain your thinking.


Thursday 3/6/14 Read and Annotate: Perception Chapter using SQ3R+ Method


27 comments:

  1. Tunji
    3A

    The country I chose to explore is Belgium. Belgium is a country in Europe. After reading about it from the Culture Crossing website I was able to find many similarities between the United States of America (USA) and Belgium customs. The Belgium greetings are similar to greetings in the USA which consist of handshaking, eye contact, and sometimes hugging. The Belgium are polite towards other people like people in the USA are. People from Belgium usually become upset when people are late just like people in the USA become upset when others are late. Gender issues are similar in Belgium and the USA because women in the workforce are usually given less pay than men, but a good thing is that both countries have strict sexual harassment laws. People in Belgium take titles seriously such as “Mr. or Mrs.” just like people in the USA. The customs of Belgium are pretty similar to the USA and I think any American can fit in the society of Belgium. Now to the differences, I only found a few. I found that in Belgium people accepted touching each other during conversation which is not seen very often in the USA. I found that Belgium do not accept casual clothing outside of school which in the USA people dress casually almost everywhere except in the office workforce usually. The grading system in Belgium is different than the grading system in the USA because in Belgium the grading scale is 0-20 where 20 is the highest while in the USA the grading scale is from 0-100 where 100 is the highest. The people of Belgium, in my opinion, are educated on a higher level than people in the USA. The differences between Belgium and USA are not really big differences and I still think that a person from the USA can easily fit into the society of Belgium. What I found interesting about Belgium is how similar they are to the USA. I expected them to be a completely strict country, which they are not. Nothing about Belgium really shocked me. I did not expect it to be 100% similar to the United States of America. The Culture Crossing website helped me become informed on the customs of a country I did not know much about, but now I know more.

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  2. Kelly
    3A
    In Ghana, greetings are a significant part of their culture. Being polite is a general rule that will go a long way. This is true for the United States as well. It is considered rude to not acknowledge someone. Although not everyone may think it is rude, majority would like a greeting. Ghanaians tend to be very direct, but polite. The compliment "you look fat today" is taken as a positive remark while in Prince George's County, Maryland or the United states, it may be taken offensive and rude. Americans may get upset over this remark and turn it into an argument. In Ghana, it is common for men to stand or walk together holding hands. While that shows a sign of friendship, it shows a sign of homosexuality in the U.S. Americans are more sensitive and judgmental when they see the same gender together. A lot of physical affection is generally inappropriate in Ghana, but in the U.S. you may be surrounded by it. In America, eye contact is very important because it shows politeness. In Ghana, too much eye contact may be viewed as rude or a threat. Views of time are pretty similar with Ghana and America, but there is a slight difference. Ghanaians may be late because of family issues while Americans may be late because of fashion issues. In America, both genders are considerably equal. They can do the same things whereas Ghanaian women are usually expected to stay home with the children, gather firewood, fetch water, cook dinner, and clean. Although in some areas, women are taking stronger roles. Ghanaians use a hissing sound to get someone's attention. Americans often do not like this because they think they are being compared to an animal. Not every American uses their right hand because in the U.S. left hand users are not seen as rude or dirty. Ghanaians purse their lips in the direction of the person to which they are referring to while Americans may carelessly use their fingers or eyes. Ghanaian men do not wear shorts because they view them as something school children sport. American men wear shorts in the warmer months. Clothes too revealing or tight fitting are avoided in Ghana, but are common in America. Many Americans view that as sexy and free. Ghanaians use the terms "Sir" and "Madame" often to acknowledge people they do or do not know. Americans sometimes use them, but some may use "Hey" "Yo" or even a curse word. Bargaining is used here and there, but not as common as Ghana. Prices are usually set in the U.S. Students in America have more of freedom of speech than Ghanaian students. Students usually remain quiet when a teacher enters the class. In Ghana, teachers move to the classrooms whereas students move in America. For closure, I did not find too much shocking information. African countries are known to be very respectful and traditional, but one surprise was how Ghanaians thought too much eye contact was rude and seen as a threat. I thought that was weird because I see eye contact as a sign of respect. I understand how too much physical affection can be inappropriate and disrespectful, but I do not understand how it can be embarrassing. I found it surprising how Ghanaians are friendly and welcoming of foreigners and foreigners can act as themselves. I thought that they might be mean and judgmental because you are not Ghanaian. Since I cleared that misunderstanding up, I would feel comfortable traveling to Ghana if the general rule of politeness can help me through.

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  3. Lashawnda Bynum
    3A

    Greece
    I choose Greece and based on what I found, I describe these individuals as people whom are very affectionate towards each other, and have very peculiar gestures that are considered as a taboo. However, we have somewhat the same customs. As for them being viewed as affectionate, I didn’t see that come across as a surprising characteristic, considering most countries outside of ours tend to be of very close contact. I noticed that we both tend to consider eye contact as very important and our penalties for drug trafficking, possession, and or acquisition are the same. When in business situations, we both consider being very punctual very important. Being well dressed in a business setting is another factor that is considered very important for both, if you want to be well-respected. For instance, wearing jeans or casual attire isn’t permitted. The gestures exchanged when meeting each other for the first time are very similar, but if of a close friend and family there is a standard that differentiates their customs from ours. Gift giving is also another similar factor; we tend to not exchange gifts in a business setting rather in a special event. Gifts are usually not really expensive; flowers and/ or pastries are fine. It shows a token of appreciation and usually should be wrapped; our culture usually shares similar ideologies especially when invited to a party. Addressing individuals with their titles (Ms., Mr., and Mrs.) is often important, especially when you don’t know an individual, it is only when you meet them and actually get to know them is when you call them by their first name. This is very similar within our customs as well.

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  4. Greece
    Part 2

    The differences are that when it comes to drinking alcohol the permitted age is much younger, ours is 21 while theirs is 17 and is rarely enforced. When negotiating, they tend to be very vibrant and live, which isn’t to be mistaken for aggression. Decisions are usually made from the top, down, in which they tend to make changes quickly and deal with the problems only if necessary. Our culture usually tries to find as many solutions as possible before making a change. Women have a lot of opportunities but poorly paid. Another difference is that while we maintain personal space, they usual don’t, and when greeting an old friend a kiss is implemented on the cheek. They also are very loud and express a lot of emotion, which can be mistaken for annoyance. Their taboos are very odd, yet one is similar. They consider your thumb between your middle and your index finger while making a fist as a dirty gesture. They consider the American sign for ‘OK’ as bad. The ‘talk to the hand’ gesture is very offensive when brought closer in someone’s face in both ours and their culture.
    Some things that I found that were interesting were for the fact that there were very similar in communication. For instance, eye contact, usually eye contact is some cultures is considered as very disrespectful and the hand gesture for ‘talk to the hand’ was also something that I wasn’t expecting at all, considering I had thought we were the only culture whom executed those acts and called it offensive. Another interesting thought was their drinking limit, they hadn’t had a precise standard and it was often free as oppose to drugs that when in both culture’s sight is accused for a high punishment. All in all, their culture is surprisingly similar in a lot of things expect for, personal space, decision making, and gender issues which really does actually separate us from them. In my perspective, I imagined women to be walking around in huge custom-made dresses, while the men wore a dress-like custom made outfit with a long beard, and their children wore clogs with small pointy hats. I also imagined the little girls with long pigtails. I personally, believed this idea because of how they were rarely talked about, and how they were already preconceived as a traditionally valued country. However, now knowing that they share similar customs, my views have completely changed.


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  5. Ashley
    3A

    Kyrgyzstan and United States of America:

    Similarities:
    Both Kyrgyzstan men and American men greet each other with a handshake. As well as women greeting other women in both countries they shakehands with each other, also with men greeting women.
    In both the U.S. and Kyrgyzstan equality is promoted women do hold jobs and provide a steady income for the household, and hold positions of power.
    The middle finger is seen as disrespectful in both countries.
    Business suit and tie for men and women when going into the city, or dealing with government. When in casual clothing jeans, and T-shirts are appropriate.
    Acquaintances address with Mr., Mrs., Miss.
    Punctuality is appreciated, and valued.
    People go out into the city to go on dates, and socialize with others.

    Differences:
    In the U.S. eye contact is a sign of respect, when conversation between one another, we value it as a form of attentiveness, and giving undivided attention. In Kyrgyzstan direct eye contact is tolerable to an extent may be easily misinterpreted as a “stare down” or a declare of challenge. Religiously observant men may avoid eye contact with women vice versa.
    Close family relationships greetings in Kyrgyzstan men touch each others temples with their own, and women kiss each other on the cheek where as in the U.S. close family friend greetings a hug would suffice for men greeting men women greeting women, and men greeting women.
    Legal drinking age in Kyrgyzstan is 16 but in the U.S. it is 21.
    Tips are not usually given in restaurants in Kyrgyzstan in the U.S. they expects a 15-20% tip
    In Kyrgyzstan schooling is from Monday to Saturday, grading system is on a scale of 1-5 3 and above is passing, 3 and below is failing. The U.S. grading system is letters and percentages 70 or above being passing and 70 and below considered failing. Students is Kyrgyzstan finish high school in the 11th grade when they are 17.

    What I found interesting was that Kyrgyzstan has more equality that I thought they would, I was surprised that there are women who hold powerful positions in the employment world. I also thought it was interesting that in Kyrgyzstan with drinking, you either go all in or not at all. If you stop in the middle of the evening others would feel offended when you have not drunk with them yet. I thought it was interesting that in Kyrgyzstan they graduate after the 11th grade while they are 17. I was also surprised when the casual clothing women wear are jeans, and T-shirts has casual clothing.

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  6. Jemuel
    3A
    The people of the United States and New Zealand are quite the same. People in New Zealand greet people by either shaking hands with them or by giving them a hug. The difference is that when people are communicating with each other, they are often separated by an arm’s length. Americans tend to get closer which would mean invading other people’s privacy in New Zealand. The people in New Zealand also tend to “beat around the bush” or hint at what they mean when they feel like they are going to offend someone. That is the same case in America where people try to avoid offending each other to avoid confrontation. Holding up the middle finger and swearing are considered a taboo in New Zealand which is the same way in the states. The U.S. and New Zealand are for the most part the same but what surprised me the most was the fact that they, in a way, encourage drinking. Of course, they do not approve of drinking and driving but the fact that they encourage drinking is a surprise to me, considering the health risks of drinking. Another thing that surprised me was their school year. Their school year starts at the end of January and ends in mid-December. At first, I thought that they had a really long school year but then I realize that they have two weeks breaks between each term and 6 weeks between the schools years. I thought that that was a really good system considering that it gives their students time to relax and rejuvenate. After a tough term, or quarter, I would personally like to have 2 weeks when I can relax and forget about school for a short time and come back refreshed for the next quarter.

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  7. Jazmine 3A
    The greetings between people in Bonaire and between the people here in the United States are the basically the same. Men and men usually greet each other with a handshake and direct contact, women and women usually shake hands unless it's a close friend or family member, then it is a light hug with a kiss on the cheek. Also, Bonaire and the U.S. have the gender issue, which is women usually work but are expected to still be responsible for the children and organization of their households. There are some differences in law and order in Bonaire, which are that the legal age to drink in a bar is 18, and not really enforced. The legal age to buy alcohol is 16, and it is not heavily enforced. Also, the penalties for drugs are more enforced than the drinking laws. This is different from the United States because the legal age to drink and buy alcohol is 21, and laws are usually enforced for this. Also, the penalties for drugs and alcohol are equally enforced. I found it shocking that students are allowed to drink and smoke and that it is acceptable. I found it interesting that the people of Bonaire are generally polite and saying things like "Good Morning/Night/Afternoon" is very important to them. If you do not do this, you are considered impolite. This is similar to the United States but, the people here take it less seriously and care less about it overall.

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  8. Jocelyn N. – 3A
    Country – Curacao

    Curacao was a country in which the only knew the name by the contestants that it sends on the Miss Universe pageant.

    Similarities – Curacao and the United States have similar ideas when it comes to social etiquette as well as the basics that a citizen should know. The United States and Curacao maintain the idea that there is such a thing as “personal space”. The idea of touching a stranger that you just met or hugging a new acquaintance is disrespectful as well as a taboo for both countries. In both countries, women are seen to be not only part of the work force, but also to be caretakers. It is frowned upon in Curacao if even women from other countries visiting the area are not considered the caretaker in their household.

    Differences – Curacao appears to be stricter on appearance than the United States. Even though many do not have a rigorous schedule set up, being on time is an important value. While the United States also believes in being on time, the term “fashionably late” has become very popular and being late may be a norm in the United States. Curacao also takes its dress code seriously. Even students do not dress in revealing or ragged clothing. In the United States, crop tops or “sagging” are trends that are plastered on the media and have been seen often in PG County schools, even with many schools having a uniform policy.

    Thoughts on Research –
    It amazed me that a country in which I knew nothing about was in the same hemisphere as the United States and the same hemisphere in which many of my traditions come from, which is El Salvador. Since the country was near Central or South America, it did not surprise me that the majority of those who live in Curacao practice the Roman Catholic religion. I actually believed that the main language would be English or Spanish, based upon how I read the name of the country. It showed me that while the United States is my place of birth, the Salvadorian culture also affects my view on how I process new information. Since I also had no prior information on the country, I believed that the country was going to be less advanced and not have as many regulations in terms of social customs. I found it shocking that they are in fact stricter than the United States for social customs and questioned what the perception of the United States is to Curacao.

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  9. Jocelyn M
    3A
    The location of Egypt is in Africa and the Middle East. The government form is republic and the official language of the country is Arabic, although they also speak French and English as well. In Egypt women are basically only accepted if they follow the traditional roles but in the United States women are allowed to smoke and go out to night clubs. Although in the Unites States, people judge because they do not agree with this lifestyle it’s not like Egypt where their morals are at risk if they part take in any of these actions. Here in the United States we are on time and care about first impressions as well as having things run at an orderly fashion. This however is different for Egypt. When asking a lady out, things should be more formal and respectable in Egypt unlike the United States where it is more blunt and straightforward. In many cases some students are allowed to go out to parties just like in the US. For businesses, it is the same in Egypt and the US where they do not wear shorts or jeans. Some things I found to be very shocking was that in Egypt the transportation system is not really so laid out so transportation arrives when it arrives; it has no set time usually. Also another thing I found to be a bit different was when speaking to the opposite sex, there must not be direct eye contact. Lastly, I found the fact that in Egypt they believe that an expensive gift is insulting because it mocks the person receiving it even if it may be out of a kind gesture.

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  10. Adriana 3A

    The country I chose was Egypt. Many of the customs they have are different from America's but the few things that Egypt and America have in common are how they greet each other with a handshake, students attending dance clubs, and their school year which is from September to May or June. Overall Egypt seems very conservative which may be due to the fact that 90% of their population is Muslim. It's not appropriate for women to wear anything that's sleeveless. Unlike America, Egypt does not value or expect punctuality. I found it interesting that pointing your foot at someone is considered rude and impolite. It kind of bothers me that when women look men in the eye it is perceived as coming on to them. How can something as simple as looking come across as that?

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  11. Jennifer
    3A

    Being introduced to the customs of a different country may be significantly shocking. When I searched up the cultural information in the Philippines, I did it with a limited amount of expectations. Moreover, I was not very surprised by the way people from the Philippines greet each other. In the United States, there are many different cultures which greet each other differently, so the Philippine greeting is similar to some of the meetings done by people inhabiting the United States. Also, people in the Philippines prefer to main their own personal space; however, in the United States that is based on personal preferences. However, in the Philippines it is a form of its culture. Another similarity that both of these countries have in common are the equal rights give to men and women. Personally, I was expecting for men to have more power over women. Moreover, there exists several differences among these countries as well.
    In the United States, when you see men and men or women and women holding hands, it is a form of a more intimate relationship. However, in the Philippines it is only a form of expressing friendship. I was very surprised because it would be very unusual to see two males holding hands simply because they are just friends. Moreover, the use of drugs in the United States is more enforced in the United States than it is in the Philippines. In the Philippines, individuals are allowed to drink and smoke at the age of 18, whereas in the United States, an individual is allowed to smoke or drink as soon as that person turns 21. Drug use in the Philippines does not seem to as strongly enforce as it is in the United States. This was shocking because I expected this country to be stricter on drug use due to the extent in which education is valued. Also, Philippines appear to be more respectful towards each other when it comes to negotiating, however, Americans tend to want to get straight to the point. Moreover, socializing in America tends to be more common than it is in the Philippines. Americans tend to go to club, and getting drunk is something common that students do as entertainment. However, being drunk in public in the Philippines is considered disrespectful. I did not expect people from the Philippines to consider being drunk disrespectful since the use of drugs is not heavily enforced. Also, I was expecting socializing to be more common as a form of entertainment since it is in the human nature to find entertainment doing a certain activity. This may mean that their entertainment may not be socializing or partying for the majority of the people in the Philippines. Also, Americans tend to take their summer vacations in the months of June, July, and August while students in the Philippines tend to take their summer vacation in April and May. Also, the Philippines grading system is much more different than the grading system in the United States. I was surprised by this because I personally believed that the grading system was the same all around the world.

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  12. Jennifer
    3A

    Being introduced to the customs of a different country may be significantly shocking. When I searched up the cultural information in the Philippines, I did it with a limited amount of expectations. Moreover, I was not very surprised by the way people from the Philippines greet each other. In the United States, there are many different cultures which greet each other differently, so the Philippine greeting is similar to some of the meetings done by people inhabiting the United States. Also, people in the Philippines prefer to main their own personal space; however, in the United States that is based on personal preferences. However, in the Philippines it is a form of its culture. Another similarity that both of these countries have in common are the equal rights give to men and women. Personally, I was expecting for men to have more power over women. Moreover, there exists several differences among these countries as well.
    In the United States, when you see men and men or women and women holding hands, it is a form of a more intimate relationship. However, in the Philippines it is only a form of expressing friendship. I was very surprised because it would be very unusual to see two males holding hands simply because they are just friends. Moreover, the use of drugs in the United States is more enforced in the United States than it is in the Philippines. In the Philippines, individuals are allowed to drink and smoke at the age of 18, whereas in the United States, an individual is allowed to smoke or drink as soon as that person turns 21. Drug use in the Philippines does not seem to as strongly enforce as it is in the United States. This was shocking because I expected this country to be stricter on drug use due to the extent in which education is valued. Also, Philippines appear to be more respectful towards each other when it comes to negotiating, however, Americans tend to want to get straight to the point. Moreover, socializing in America tends to be more common than it is in the Philippines. Americans tend to go to club, and getting drunk is something common that students do as entertainment. However, being drunk in public in the Philippines is considered disrespectful. I did not expect people from the Philippines to consider being drunk disrespectful since the use of drugs is not heavily enforced. Also, I was expecting socializing to be more common as a form of entertainment since it is in the human nature to find entertainment doing a certain activity. This may mean that their entertainment may not be socializing or partying for the majority of the people in the Philippines. Also, Americans tend to take their summer vacations in the months of June, July, and August while students in the Philippines tend to take their summer vacation in April and May. Also, the Philippines grading system is much more different than the grading system in the United States. I was surprised by this because I personally believed that the grading system was the same all around the world.

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  13. Obichi
    3A

    The country I chose to research was Albania. I chose this country because although I know a couple of people who are Albanian, I did not know anything about the country. So, I decided it was time I stopped being ignorant about the customs and traditions of the country of origin of some of my peers. Through my research, I discovered that there are many differences between Albania and America. The two biggest differences are religion and social relations. In the United States, over 70 percent of the population is Christian, and only 1 percent is Muslim. In Albania, however, 70 percent of the population is Muslim and only about 10 percent is Christian. In addition, the concept of personal space is not as emphasized in Albania as it is the United States. In Albania, it is very common for people who are familiar with each other to greet each other with a kiss on the cheek. This bears a stark contrast to the American way of greeting: Americans may shake hands or hug when greeting each other but a kiss on the cheek is considered an intimate gesture. Another difference between the two countries is that Albanians consider being late polite, while Americans consider it rude. Also, although both countries have stereotypes of what women should be, there is more equality among genders in America than there is among genders in Albania. But, this may just be attributed to the fact that America is a more developed nation than Albania. The Albanian culture also tends to be stricter, in terms of relationships between men and women who are not engaged: most Albanians emphasize the idea that a man and a woman should spend as little time as possible alone together if they are not engaged. Despite their differences, America and Albania share some similar customs. For example, direct eye contact during conversation is considered a sign of sincerity in both countries. One thing I found particularly interesting about Albania is that, although the country is not strict about drinking and smoking, public drunkenness is looked down on. As a result, even people at bars do not usually drink to the point of intoxication. I find this situation rather peculiar because the public opinion regulates smoking and alcohol consumption, thus diminishing the need for formal laws that restrict either one. I also find it interesting that the school year in Albania lasts for the same period of time as the typical American school year; both school years begin roughly around September and end around June. The reason I found this interesting is because I have had to research other countries in the past and none of them had a school year that was similar to that of the United States. Usually, the school year in other countries begin at a different time and end at a different time that of the U.S. I am very curious as to whether Albania got this idea from the United States, seeing as many countries emulate the structures of U.S. institutions.

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  14. Jesus 3A
    The country that I chose was Italy, Europe. To start off with, I looked into the subtopic of basics and examined how people greet each other. As I can tell, Italians greet each other differently from us Americans. For men, they greet other men by shaking hands while making direct contact, but if they are good friends or family, it can sometimes lead to giving a light kiss on each other’s cheek. For women, they greet other women by giving maybe 2-3 light kisses to friends and family, the kisses are not actually kisses but instead they are cheek to cheek touching. When men and women greet each other, it is mostly the same as when women greet other women. Men and women give light kisses on the cheeks, but when some of them meet for the first time, instead it is a handshake. How Italians communicate with each other is that they are formal, direct, tell the truth, show emotion, and are animated and dramatic. Italians communicate differently than we do. Italians talk as if it’s a normal conversation when they argue, and it’s just their way of communicating. Also Italians talk straight up but talk in a polite manner. How Italians are with their personal space and touching is that they keep it arm length or even less depending if it is either friends or family, it is normal for most Italians to be hugging and kissing etc. but there are certain limits. In Italy, eye contact is important, it is said that if you do not look at a person while they are talking or when they shake your hand, it is rude, it is mostly appreciated and normal. The laws in Italy are different from here in America, the legal age for purchasing alcohol is 16 but there is no legal age for drinking, this is shocking and interesting to me. In business, people in Italian dress formally, with suits and dresses as a business dress, for example men wear stylish suits with shirts and ties while women wear stylish business dresses and blouses with high heels. When dealing with meetings, Italians show respect to show up on time, it is still acceptable to show up 5 minutes late but 10 minutes is not. The younger you are in business, the more important it is to show up on time. For Students, their class rules are different, in Italy; their scale is from 0-30 with 30 being the highest and the best. Each student is required to get an 18 to pass each exam they have which is a total of 8. Also they do not get as much vacation as we do here in Maryland. How Italian students socialize between each other is by having house parties and going out to many places; when people go on a date, it is normal to go out for a drink or to dinner. I find Italy’s culture, quite similar to Maryland because in some parts you can relate many things such as when students or other people go out it can be to dinner or on the weekends some can go out to party with friends. Also it is respectful to look at one when they are speaking; the only thing that caught me off guard and shocked me was about the law where the legal age for purchasing alcohol is 16, that is way different in Maryland. Either way, it is just how some cultures are, just following how they develop year by year and how reasonable their culture can be. For me, it was great to learn about a new culture and how people act in the country.

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  15. Constance Hackett
    3A

    I selected to India to research because what little knowledge I knew of India intrigued me. When communicating in some parts India direct eye contact is considered to be inappropriate and indirect eye contact is preferred. Whereas in America, direct eye contact is considered to be respectful and some people even get reprimanded for not looking their elders in the eye when speaking. It can also be a sign of nervousness often translated to lying. Also in America, time is considered to be extremely valuable, hence the phase “time is money”, and punctuality is a trait often expected rather than appreciated. If a person is late to a meeting, the person or people the person was planning to meet might feel like the person does not respect them enough not to waste the time. On the other hand, India has a very laid back approach towards time because they consider it eternal so it is not considered rude to be tardy. I found how India considered the left hand to be interesting because most Americans do not find whether the left or right hand is used although most people use their right hands because they are right hand. However, I did not find this surprising as the Latin word for left is "sinistra" which took on its negative meaning when people started to think that left handedness was unlucky or sinister.

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  16. Vaskia, 3A
    Czech Republic, Europe v.s. The United States

    In the Czech Republic there is a Parliamentary democracy whereas in The United States we have a Constitution-based federal republic. In the United States we have a wide spread of different economic groups decent of white, blacks, Asian, native Hawaiian, Pacific islander and more. We also have diverse Language (English,Spanish, Hawaiian, Indo-European)and Religion groups most of which speak english and who are protestant. While in Czech Republic the official
    language is Czech and is major religions are Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, and unaffiliated 59%. In Czech Republic they speak in an indirect manner, with a loud humorous tone when telling jokes. Whereas in the United States people often talk in a informal direct manner while being somewhat polite. Tend to offer more compliments than Europeans. Both countries value their personal space and do not enjoy touching unless its from a close family member or friend. If one does not show direct eye contact in either the Czech Republic or the United States it is considered rude and disrespectful when someone is speaking. Americans tend to value time more than Czech Republic because in The United States one must be punctual for everything especially business related whereas in the Czech it is okay to be 5-10 minutes late when meeting a friend but otherwise it is not. In The U.S.A businesses men and women tend to dress more casual after the interview process but in the Czech Republic the tend to dress formal with suits and dresses pants or blouse for females. For meeting times is very important for both countries. In Czech Republic meeting are usually there for getting to know someone and In America they usually follow the agenda given.Business deals tend to be very important to Americans, than family relations and use hard tactics whereas the Czechs try to avoid that type of tactic to avoid embarrassment.In both countris school starts aroud August to September and end either in May or June. In Czech there grading system runs from 1-100, and 60 being the fail mark. Whereas in The United States there is a letter grade system A to F, F- being the failing grade. In both societies students tend to interact the same way by going out and drinking or partying.
    I found it interesting that the main language is Czech but their are different ethnic groups besides
    Czech 90.4%, there is also Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4%. The fore finger is considered a rude thing if waven back and forth to a person. Wheres as in America the middle finger is consider a sign of respect.I found that the drinking age and smoking age is 18 in Czech Republic. Drinking age is not enforced in Czech Republic, and has the largest beer per capita in the world. Smoking discourage by the government because it causes higher tobacco taxes.Whereas in the United States the drinking age is 21 and is strictly enforced, and the smoking age ranges from 18 to 19, and has non- smoking areas.Drug laws are strict in both countries. It was shocking to me that if invited to a Czech home that one would have to bring gift while in the United States is considered a bribe to bring gift to someone in the work place. In the Czech Republic Males are dominant but in the United stated equality is valued.

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  17. Abigail Moore
    3A

    The county I choose to investigate was Sweden. What stood out the most to me was that there is no negative stigma around excessive drinking, despite the fact that as a whole the Swedish tend to be very formal in their conduct. For example when people meet they shake hands and are exceptionally polite and proper. The people tend to be very modest and don’t feel the need to talk a lot, in fact it is common for conversations to have long lulls, and nobody feels pressured to fill these gaps. The Swedish value punctuality and it is in very bad taste to be late, especially to a business meeting. It seemed odd to me that in a county as idealistic as Sweden, it would be normal for people to drink as often as they do. In fact it is strange to them when a person doesn’t drink and they are often subject to large amounts of scrutiny by those around them. The excuse “I was drunk” is a very valid one in Sweden and most relationships are started at a bar, and it is rare to go on a date that is not to a bar. Bars are really the hub of romance, and one night stands are common and not frowned upon as they are in America.
    In comparison to America Sweden seems to be a more socially structured place. It is apparent to me that our culture would be very loud and brash to a Swedish native, and to us their culture appears to be cold and aloof. The Swedish people appear to be very practical in all they do, whereas we are not always that efficient. A similarity I noticed was that American and Swedish women have the same standards set for them in the workplace. While women can hold all the same positions, they are paid less than a male doing the same job. However it is rare to find a Swedish woman who does not work at all.

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  18. Nnedi- 3A
    Haiti
    Through my research, I found out that Haiti has a very unique culture than the United States although there are a few similarities. When it comes to greetings, Haitian men and women greet one another with a handshake. However, friends and close acquaintances share a light kiss on cheek. Haitians prefer standing about an arm’s length from one another while having a conversation, but the space can change when it comes to family and close friends. Men and/or women tend to touch one another on the arms, shoulders, or hands while conversing. In the business world, personal hygiene is very important. Men are required to wear pants while women wear skirts. The dress code tends to be less casual in urban areas. Coming late to an appointment or service is accepted because punctuality does not hold importance. It is considered the norm for people to give their time freely having to wait for services and appointments. When it comes to working, women usually perform the traditional roles such as doing laundry, cleaning, and tending to the kids while men work on either the fields or other jobs that help provide for the family. There is no means of gender equality, rather inequality because women are seen inferior to men.

    In the United States, men and women rarely share a kiss when it comes to greeting. Conversations are not usually lengthy because we live by the concept of time is money. Wasting time is not one of the things we are interested in doing whereas in Haiti they value conversation more that time. Here, men usually dress formal in the business world, but wearing pants are not strictly required as it is in Haiti. Coming late to an appointment is considered rude, because it shows that it holds no importance, however Haitians perceive that as the norm. Women are able to take on jobs in the teaching and medical field because there is more equality than there is in Haiti. Not only can they be ahead of the house, but also serve as an example for other women in the country. However, in Haiti, women follow the traditional concepts of gender role.

    A similarity I found between Haiti and the United States is that eye contact is very valuable. It lets one know that you are interested and it also shows a sign of respect.

    What I found interesting was that whistling/ pointing at someone is considered rude. It was quite interesting to hear that because our culture does not consider that as rude, rather suspicious. The thing that shocked me the most was that the legal drinking age is sixteen and it not heavily enforced. It seems as though their society has imposed measures on teenagers to show how mature they are to handle drinking. Drinking when you are sixteen in the United States is illegal because the drinking age is twenty-one and it is heavily enforced. Drugs laws are very efficacious when it comes to penalizing those who break the law.

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  19. Alyssa 3A

    The official language of Ireland is English and Irish. Unites Stated doesn’t have an official language but the most spoken language, which is spoken by 82% of the country, is English. Ireland has a republic, parliamentary democracy while the US has a constitution based federal republic. Both have similar ways of greeting, such as handshakes or a hug for someone we might know a little better. Irish people are direct and to the point in conversation. They also tend to joke a lot, but it’s all good nature. The Irish tell a lot of stories and may embellish a bit. Americans also tend to be direct but more informally and try to avoid sensitive topics and bragging and things of that nature. Both tend to like their space when talking. Punctuality is not as valued in Ireland as it is in America. You might even be considered odd if you are on time. Gender equality is present in both countries. It’s highly valued in America. Some Irish women feel pressure to stay for or have a career. In Ireland making a peace sign faced the wrong way can be see and offensive like the middle finger in the US. Race is a sensitive subject in America like homosexuality and abortion of very sensitive things to talk about in Ireland. The drinking age in Ireland in 18 and 21 in the US. Business attire is similar like suits, blouses, dresses, etc. Students are also very similar. Drinking among student is probably common in a lot of different countries

    I thought it was interesting how they talked about the Irish telling stories and embellishing a bit because, I don’t know why but, when I think of the Irish I think of like a whole lot of them being really loud and happy at some pub drinking beer and telling each other stories
    I have also found it very interesting what different hand gestures are offensive in other countries. I think the one about the peace sign and if you fingers are facing you or not is very interesting. I tend to put a peace signs a lot with no regards as to which way I put it. But in Ireland if I don’t pay attention to that I could be telling someone to “bug off”
    I’m glad there was something about the drinking age because it was pretty much all I knew about Ireland. One of my favorite band members had said how the only thing he didn’t like about America was that he wasn’t allowed to drink here. But where he came from, Ireland it was ok because he was 18. Its one of the main reasons I chose to do Ireland

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  20. Rebeca
    Country:Israel
    Location: Africa , The Middle East
    Basics: hand shakes are common for a man greeting another man if there Muslim it must be with the right hand. A women will greet her friend with a kiss in each cheek (right cheek then left) otherwise a hand shake. They like to be direct to the point. Direct eye contact is considered respecting the other person speaking. It's offensive to not accept an invitation.
    Business: men usually wear suits and ties for formal situations or casual dark clothing. Women wear business suits, dresses and/or blouses. Addressing somebody by there first name should be told to not assumed. Get to business quickly. Simple gifts are better accepted than expensive or extravagant presents.
    Students: jeans are acceptable in universities usually student dress casually. Grades are based on a scale of 0-100 and 60 is failing! Student spend time together smoking, drinking, clubbing, shopping and going to the beach. Students are very forward about dating.
    Similarities/differences: in crowded situations like the market place aggressive driving is normal like here in the US rode rage is one if the main reasons for accidents. Religious people carry then selfs differently than others, By wearing longer clothing and women covering there face arms and legs. Punctuality is seen as respect and in the US usually everybody is running late now in day! Men and women are equal and women can and do hold higher positions in businesses and politics, like in the US. Thumbs up mean okay!
    Interesting/shocking, and/or thought-provoking: J-walking is punishable with a fine (50-100 shekel). Gifts are expected when invited to dinner. School year runs from October to June or July.

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  21. Stanley 3A
    The customs found in Albania are much looser in some area and yet stricter in other areas than the ones that we experience here in the states. Albanians encourage many of the social trends that people in the states have such as eye contact when we speak, handshakes, and different greetings to different people based on gender and relationship. However, in Albania kisses on the cheeks are usually acceptable ways of greeting, and personal space is not very important. For example, most conversations are within arm length, and excessive touching while conversation is very common. In the states, while some conversations are in arm’s length, personal space is something viewed very highly by others. People do not tend to enjoy, and can even see as offensive, people too close to them. Communication style between both countries is very much opposite. People in the States are more likely to comment on personal feelings than on another person’s weight; however In Albania this would be the opposite. Social interactions between both countries are largely different as well because traditional standings in Albania. Women in Albania are usually only meant to be the housewife, and they could receive bad reputations for just being seen with a man. However Albania’s relationship with Europe had made it easier for women and men to begin living life in a more modern style. Women are now getting jobs and dating men that they wanted to instead of living life in arranged marriages. People in the States would see women in power and think nothing twice about it because it is our norm. I thought that the fact that the old traditions in Albania are beginning to change. Tying back to my geography class, urbanization is rapidly spreading around the world. I think it is very possible that as Albanians are becoming more urbanized, the traditions of the countries that aided the situation, such as Europe, have a large power to change the social views of the people

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  22. Akorede
    Period 3A

    Belarus a European country has peeked my interest and has a lot of strange customs in comparison to where I live. In Belarus Belarusians prefer to point to something with one finger while the customs (people) I have grown up here has told me that pointing is rude and I am supposed to just describe whatever I want show them. In Belarus the issue of personal space seems to be nothing with men and they usually feel comfortable with invading ones space and do not mind riding on very crowded buses, and no one complains about being packed like sardines. However where I live people do not feel comfortable with being in close quarters with other people and usually complain or even get into altercations if one is too close. Nevertheless Belarusians tend to look at each other in the eye when speaking just like the customs where I live since we also look each other in the eye during a conversation. Belarusians tend to relax and have a good time with friends which is similar to customs here in America. Belarus has an interesting school system where they use a single digit to double digit system in order to represents grades on a scale of 1-10 where 8+ which is equivalent to an A where I live however a 9 or 10 is very difficult to obtained because they mean extra special work has been done. Nines are possible to obtain for good students and ending the year with all 9's or better means one may qualify as "Otlichniki"- with honors which is similar to principal's honor roll in my school system. Another interesting thing in Belarus is gifts usually mean corruption and it is best to avoid any gifts in an initial meeting and I found this interesting because sometimes people give gifts to people without knowing them for example such gifts as house warming presents for a new neighbor. A law in Belarus that actually shocks me is at the age of 18 it is legal to drink and if you are caught with Marijuana at any age below 16 you are fined and sent home.

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  23. Catherine O. 3A

    I decided to explore Australia. Under the subtopic of Basics, I found that Australia and the United States had similar greetings, communication style, and views about personal space. In both countries, people greet with a formal handshake, and if you're close friends or family, then a hug or something more is accepted. Both countries speak in a direct manner, and arrogance is looked down upon. Both countries follow the rule of an arm's length of personal space during conversation. With eye contact, both countries appreciate direct eye contact. However, in Australia, Aboriginal people or native people view direct eye contact as disrespectful. I found this thought provoking, as it made me think about the Native Americans here and wonder how they view eye contact. Is direct eye contact considered disrespectful for all natives in each country? In Australia, people are more laid back, and most people will give time fairly freely to help each other out. I found this shocking because in the U.S., people value their time, and most people won't give time freely to help each other out. Time is money here and it's best that you show up on time for appointments and social functions. In Australia, punctuality for business and professional situations are valued, but not so much for social functions. Both countries generally have the same view about equality of gender. I found it interesting how females in Australia are treated or act in social occasions. Over there, on social occasions or dating, people normally split the bill. If you're invited to the movies, expect to pay for yourself. Normally, when people go on dates, its the 'norm' for the male to pay for the bill. I also found it interesting that rarely will a car door be opened for a female, but if it is, it is polite to lean over and open the driver door from the inside. In the U.S. it is common for the male to open the door for a female from the outside.
    For gestures, both countries use the peace sign. However, in Australia, if you put up the peace sign with your palm facing inwards, it is considered rude. Meanwhile in the U.S. people put up the peace sign with their palm facing whatever direction they please. It's similar to putting up the middle finger in the United States. In Australia, the legal drinking age is 18, and readily enforced, while in the U.S, the legal drinking age is 21, and heavily enforced.

    For Business, both countries agree in dressings for work, which is a conservative business suit. Both agree with addressing people by Ms, Mr, or Miss, and then you wait on them to see whether they want you to call them by their first name. In Australia, small talk is acceptable but not a lot. In the U.S., there is no time for small talk. In Australia, it's best to avoid hard selling tactics, but in the U.S, its normal. Bargaining is frowned upon in Australia, but in the U.S., almost everyone does it. Both countries agree on bringing small gifts when invited to someone’s house.

    For students, both countries have similar class rules. However, education for them begins in kindergarten, while in the U.S., it's pre-kindergarten. Also, high school starts at 7th grade for Australia, while high school for the U.S. generally starts at 9th grade. There is usually a middle school or junior high that takes place from grades 7-8 or 6-8 in the U.S. Both countries tend to socialize in similar ways when it comes to parties, and just like the U.S., it's not uncommon to see excessive drinking.

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  24. Ephraim 3A
    In the United States and Guatemala, both countries like to greet with a handshake when they first meet. However, close friends and families in Guatemala kiss each other on the cheek while close friends and family in the United States like to give each other hugs. In both Guatemala and the United States, most people seem to be most comfortable within 2-3 feet of each other. In Guatemala, there is a fair amount of touching between women and women while in the United States, a fair amount of touching is usually reserved for close family members and friends. People in the United States and Guatemala both value eye contact during conversations. In the United States, time is money, so people do not like when others are late for appointments, services, and deliveries. In Guatemala, the people place more emphasis on others and relationships than to stick to a schedule. It is common to show up late to a party or a function. In Guatemala, most of the housework is expected to be completed by the women. The people in the United States value equality between men and women. In Guatemala, people say goodbye by raising their hands with the palm facing in and wave their fingers at themselves. In the United States, people say goodbye by moving their entire hand from left to right with the palm facing outward. In Guatemala, putting your thumb between your middle finger and index finger is an obscene gesture. Also, being loud in public places is not appreciated. In the United States, race is sensitive and people do not appreciate spitting. The legal drinking age is 18 in Guatemala and is not readily enforced. The drinking age in the United States is 21 and heavily enforced. The penalties of drug possession can include a lengthy prison sentence. In business, both the United States and Guatemala dress more formal in major cities than they do in rural areas. In both countries, it is best to call someone with their title followed by their last name. Arriving on time to business meetings is important in both countries. In the United States, they like to get down to business immediately. While in Guatemala, there is some small talk before the meeting gets down to business. In both countries, negotiations can be very lengthy before a deal is reached. In the United States, the contract is more important than the relationship. In Guatemala, the relationship is more important than the contract. It is uncommon in both countries to bring gifts to an initial business meeting. However, if invited to an American or Guatemalan household, it is appropriate to bring gifts. In Guatemala, the school year begins in January and ends in November. Grades are given on a scale of 0-100, with a 51 being the usual passing grade. In the United States, the school year begins from late August/early September and ends in mid-May/early June. The grading in the United States is from F-A, with an A being the highest grade and an F being the lowest grade. Most of the schools in both countries allow casual dressing. In Guatemala, it is rude for a student to be excessively drunk in public. In the United States, students socialize by participating in school clubs. I found it shocking that it is common for people in Guatemala to arrive late for functions. Also, the way how it was described how Guatemalans gesture goodbye made my laugh a little. I imagine what life would be like if the United States started the school year in January and ended it in November. I wonder what the “putting thumb in between middle and index finger” gesture means in Guatemala. I was a little shocked when I read that the drinking laws are not heavily enforced in Guatemala.

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  25. Uchechi Nwaneri
    3A

    The country I have selected is Ghana. The similarities between Ghana’s exploration and customs here include greetings, communication style, personal space and touching, eye contact, views of time, gender issues, gestures, taboos, law and order, dress, titles and business cards, meetings, negotiations, gift giving, class rules, and socializing. In Ghana and the United States, it is best to avoid political talk or any talk that will pose controversy. In Ghana and the United States, overly direct eye contact or staring could be considered rude and a possible threat. Historically, in Ghana and the United States, women were expected to stay home with the children, clean, and cook. In Ghana and the United States, waving or beckoning someone are gestures to indicate a greeting. In both countries, whistling and hissing shows appreciation and is used to get someone’s attention. In Ghana and the United States, the smoking age is 18 or 19. In both countries, illegal drug possession results in long jail sentences and heavy fines. In Ghana and the United States, dress attire is formal when it comes to business. Men usually wear suits, while women wear suits, dresses, and skirts. In Ghana and the United States, there is no specific protocol for giving and receiving protocols. In Ghana and the United States, meetings compose of small talks because Ghanaians and Americans like to get down to business quickly, although Ghanaians are often late in punctuality compared to Americans. In the United States and Ghana, gift giving is highly appreciated, especially a bottle of wine. In the United States and Ghana, failure to behave in class and complete work results in a poor grade. In the United States and Ghana, socializing is important in everyday life. Teens enjoy going to parties, bars, discos, and sporting events.

    The differences between Ghana’s exploration and customs here include greetings, communication style, personal space and touching, eye contact, views of time, gender issues, gestures, taboos, law and order, dress, titles and business cards, meetings, negotiations, gift giving, class rules, and socializing. In Ghana, the most common form of greeting is a handshake with the right hand, whereas in the United States handshakes with direct eye contact are common. In Ghana, it is considered rude to not verbally acknowledge someone, especially one’s elder. In Ghana, it is important for to say “good morning,” “good afternoon,” and “good evening.” In the United States, greetings are not significantly recognized. Ghana’s communication style tends to be direct, formal, and polite, whereas in the United States, communication style tends to be direct and informal. Ghanaians appropriate amount of personal space when talking is an arm’s length, whereas the United States is 2 to 3 feet. During conversations, Ghanaians of the same or different gender may engage in touching to show friendship but too much physical expression may be considered inappropriate. During conversations, Americans engage in little to no touching. In addition, in Ghana hugging between family and friends is not really common compared to the United States. In the United States, direct eye contact is considered a sign of respect, whereas in Ghana, direct eye contact is only acceptable between members of the same gender, age, and social class. In the United States, Americans value punctuality and expect people or things to be on time. In Ghana, timeliness is a big issue. Ghanaians are known to be late to appointments and social functions. In the United States, gender equality and equal work opportunities are valued. In Ghana, women are taking on stronger roles and are involving themselves in the workforce with men. In Ghana, the kissing sound is often used to tell someone to watch out. In the United States, the OK sign or thumb sign is a good and acceptable gesture but not in Ghana. The raising of the middle finger is highly offensive in the United States.

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  26. Uchechi Nwaneri
    3A
    Continuing...
    In Ghana, pointing and using your left hand to shake hands, touch, eat food, or handle money considered rude. In the United States discrimination of race is avoided and spitting is unacceptable. In Ghana, the drinking age is 18, whereas in the United States, the drinking age is 21. In Ghana, it is common to address people by Sir, Madame, Mister, or even their profession. In the United States, it is common to address people by Mr, Mrs, or Miss. In Ghana, negotiations and decision making takes time to be reached, and in the United States a group consensus is valued when making decisions. In Ghana, bargaining is expected when making negotiations, whereas in the United States tactics and business deals and contracts are more important. In Ghana, classrooms are very formal, whereas in the United States classes are considered informal. Ghanaian students show their teachers more respect compared to American students. In Ghana, students remain in their classrooms and teachers switch when classes change, whereas in the United States, students move to the teacher’s classroom when classes change.

    I did not find much interesting, shocking, and thought-provoking between the similarities and differences of basics, business, and students in Ghana and the United States. Because of my Nigerian background and upbringing in the United States, before exploring Ghana, I was able to recognize that Ghana and the United States are not very culturally similar, in terms of customs and values. What I found interesting, shocking, and thought-provoking are Ghana’s greetings, taboos, and views of time just because they relate to my Nigerian background. In terms of greetings, just like Ghanaians, Nigerians must acknowledge their elders with verbal greetings, such as “good morning,” “good afternoon,” and “good evening.” Failure to do this shows a sign of disrespect. In terms of taboos, just like Ghanaians, Nigerians must use their right hand to shake, touch, eat food, and handle money. Failure to do this shows a sign of disrespect. In terms of views of time, just like Ghanaians, Nigerians are never on time to meetings and appointments. Literally, one can expect to and wait for events to play out. I never realized how much African countries are similar to each other. It is safe to say that my African background and upbringing in the United States clouded what I found interesting, shocking, and thought-provoking.

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  27. Asia 3A

    There is a variation in the way both Americans and Fijians communicate. In Fiji, Fijian women will greet other Fijian women by often kissing the air next to the other person’s cheek. If they respect the person deeply, it’s a sign of respect to put their nose close to other person’s cheek and nose, and breathe in. If they know you as a Westerner, they may hug you briefly and kiss the air next to your cheek as well. Indo-Fijian women will greet each other with “Namaskar” (Namaste) and sometimes a brief hug. In America, this is not as common. Some women may do this amongst each other if they really knew each other. In both America and Fiji, generally, some people are shy to say what they are thinking. Others try to translate what they are thinking for you to understand, and some people are very direct. During conversation, for both Americans and Fijians, sometimes you can get the idea that they understand what you are talking about. Women In both America and Fiji share the same role as far as taking care of the children and doing house work. While the women take care of their children, the men go off to work. Sometimes in both Fiji and America, the women do all of the work, which is doing the chores in the house, take care of the children, and go to work. The differences in both America and Fiji are that America is more advanced in technology. Fijians tend to make an open fire in order to cook. The men in Fiji often work in the fields. In America, we use stoves and microwaves. There are much more job opportunities. There are many similarities in Gestures in both America in Fiji. In Fiji, citizens do not point. Fijians also greet others with handshakes. Fijians mostly greet people they really know with the handshakes. If they do not know someone really well, they may not greet them with a handshake. Another difference between Americans and Fijians is our culture as far as personal space and touching. In Fiji, there is not much touching at all. Even amongst couples, which include the main cultures (Hindu, Muslim, Chinese, indigenous Fijian), they do not show affection towards each other. In America, I believe that it is the opposite.
    What I Found interesting In Fijian cultures is the fact that many women who are Christian have the duties that involve supporting churches by attending meetings and cooking for the minister. They also cook for the school children on a rotational basis. It is not as mandatory to cook for a church or for anyone here in America. I believe that because Fijians do this, they are more generous with both their time and their belongings than Americans. I also thought that the way Fijians viewed their time was interesting. Time is viewed differently in village life and village social situations, versus working in the city. Being on time is much less important in village life among villagers (indigenous Fijians) than in the city. In my opinion, I believe that Americans can be this way as well. In the city, it is much more important for someone to get to work on time. Otherwise, if you are outside of the city, since there are less jobs, being on time for something may not be as important.

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Thanks for posting!!

Swift