Friday, November 2, 2012

Updates/Reminders for November & December



General IBParkdale  Business 


1. Your draft of your Extended Essay is due to your adviser by COB today 11/2/12

2. Your final draft is due by 12/3/13 (two copies to your adviser) 

3. Our Field Trip (for participating students) is 11/8/12 Thursday

4.  The November Community Speaks Event is tentatively scheduled for 11/14/12

5.  The  December Community Speaks Event is 12/12/12 with National Coalition for Homeless

6. AP/ IB Parkdale Mixer Social is Scheduled for 12/20/12 Link to RSVP is here

7.  Be sure to check the shared calendar for upcoming assignments, exams, and/or deadlines




2nd Quarter Assessments for TOK: 


1. Paired Oral Presentation TOKish Spin on Invisible Man (make sure you are reading)

2. Individual Reflection Essay on Your College Search Experiences (we will discuss Monday)

3.Individual Reflection Essay on TOK Aims & Objectives  (latter part of 2nd qtr)

3.  Defending the WOK which is the most useful/reliable (Presentation/Debate Style)


Classwork & Homework Updates 

1.  I will drop Umbrellaology in the Google Drive for your use in the future

2.  Monday we continue with the Reason Chapter

3.   Homework Due Wednesday 11/7/12:  Project Implicit


Take Two tests:
~You must take the Race IAT~  The second is your choice…challenge yourself
~Reflect on your results prior to the completion of the follow-up questions.



Follow-Up Questions

Do you think that these tests are valid?  When you first saw your results, did you question or accept the test's validity?

Give examples of the cultural messages that may support attitudes linking a dominant group in your nation or culture with "good" or "superior" attributes and a subordinate group with "bad" or "inferior" ones.  Are these attitudes generalizations that can be called stereotypes?  How can generalizations be distinguished from stereotypes?

If some of our consciously held beliefs, attitudes and values are undermined by what Gladwell calls rapid cognition (others call this intuitive thinking or even gut feelings), what do you suggest we can do to combat jumping to (false) conclusions?

 Compose your response in a word document and then cut and paste it into the comment's section of this post.

Remember:
1.  Choose Anonymous in the drop down menu
2.  First Name only
3.  Your response
4.  Reply to another student by Friday  11/9/12



74 comments:

  1. Once I saw what we were supposed to do I immediately rebutted it, did not even want to consider the assignment, but then realized it was for a grade and I could actually find out some things from myself. Once I completed the test on race, I just stared at the computer like “this was so pointless”. My feelings toward whether I find this valid is shaky because it would not allow me to click on what I wanted to click so I just followed what it wanted me to follow. I felt trapped in a way. Honestly if there was a choice of both that would have been my one and only option. I don't trust or like any race so they set me up from my point of view. At the end of the survey or questions, they said that “Most respondents find it easier to associate African American with Bad and European American with Good compared to the reverse" and then I'm wondering then what was the point of wasting my time. To prove your theory right? Cultural messages are very much misleading, true and confusing, all in one. Just today I sat at a table with a bunch of Hispanics and this one boy was talking about fufu and how can Africans make something out of flower or even dough and we eat with our hands. I sat there and wonder how one can say that and they do the same thing. We as humans judge each other and fail to realize that we are just like each other, but don’t want to admit it. They all tie in with each other, once you generalize a pacific type of person that generalizations turns into a stereotypes. Gladwell “rapid cognition” has a sense of when there is no way to combat jumping to false conclusions. Once that gut retching feeling is there you have this sense of certainty, you believe deep down in your heart that it is right and just and nothing can stop that. Then live off of those emotions and feelings.

    -Togoe

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    1. I agree with you, many humans tend to judge each other due to the ignorance or lack of knowledge of their culture and what creates that specific country. Through your example of the hispanic individual, i connected and believed that previously in life i've judged food like any other person, but then i reflected and actually thought to myself. I believe that there is no limit to knowledge and that while we live we should learn as much as possible and never stop learning about other cultures. We are all united in this world and we shouldn't limit our horizons. we should appreciate the different cultures in our world and unite with each other!
      Franklin

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    2. I agree! How do you think they should modify these surveys so that it can be more accurate? -Jessica

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    3. Togoe, I think you should reread you post. You cannot combat prejudice with prejudice attitudes. Did you ever consider that?

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  2. 1.Do you think that these tests are valid? When you first saw your results, did you question or accept the test's validity?

    I don’t think that the tests are valid. The criterion that they’re basing your results off isn't as advanced as I thought it would be. I looked into the search bar and saw that the website came from Harvard University so I expected more. All I was doing was matching pictures of white faces and black faces and good and bad categories. I don’t think that they should be a basis on figuring out which racial group you prefer over another. If anything, I think this test challenged your mind and had to do more with word association. When I first saw my results for the Race IAT I wasn’t surprised. I do have the warmest feelings about black people because they’re the main race that I’m surrounded by. Maybe I would feel differently if I were in a more predominately white neighborhood or county but that’s beside the point. I also did the Arab-Muslim - Other People IAT and it said that I preferred Arabs/Muslims over other races. That wasn't necessarily true but I try to be tolerable towards other religions/ethnic groups.

    2.Give examples of the cultural messages that may support attitudes linking a dominant group in your nation or culture with "good" or "superior" attributes and a subordinate group with "bad" or "inferior" ones. Are these attitudes generalizations that can be called stereotypes? How can generalizations be distinguished from stereotypes?

    Historically, black people in America have been seen as “bad” and white people as “good.” This mindset goes back to the days of slavery. White people were seen as superior or better than blacks. Although slavery doesn't exist today, its remnants still are seen. These thoughts are more like stereotypes to me rather than generalizations. Generalizations are speaking in terms of more of a whole. Generalizations are done sub-consciously and aren’t meant to be harmful. It turns into stereotyping when it’s applied to all of a people and what’s being said goes from harmful to malicious.

    3.If some of our consciously held beliefs, attitudes and values are undermined by what Gladwell calls rapid cognition (others call this intuitive thinking or even gut feelings), what do you suggest we can do to combat jumping to (false) conclusions?

    Doing more research should be done before jumping to conclusions. Before I even speak on an issue I do more research on it. By doing that I can reduce my chances of making a fool out of myself.Also, looking into your culture more should help you stay grounded and not jump to any false conclusions.

    -Ihu

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    1. I agree with what you said about being educated and knowledgeable about what you're talking about. Your environment can affect how you feel about a certain race or group of people. I think I rememeber you guys talking about the different tribes in Nigeria and how depending which tribe you are affiliated with, it can affect how you see the people of another tribe. If you don't open your mind and heart to others one will definitely be a fool. Beliefs and attitudes that one's environment presents should not be readily accepted but broken down, analyzed, and interpreted in one's on way.
      --Linda

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    2. Ihu...So you are not a victim of snap judging from others? Have you made snap those snap decisions about ohers?

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    3. **Ihu...So you are not a victim of snap judging from others? Have you made those snap decisions about ohers?

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  3. When I first saw my results for the Disability IAT, I was not surprised that I had a “slight preference” for disabled people over abled people, considering the fact that I, myself, have a disability. When I saw the results for the Race IAT, I was initially surprised at first that I had a “slight preference” for white (European) Americans over black (African) Americans. Then I thought about my general dissatisfaction of my fellow IB classmates (most of which are black). I also recalled that my parents said that, when I was in Elementary school, I had a preference for white girls. So, essentially, both of these IATs are valid tests.

    In America, many of the board games that children played had hidden messages of white superiority and black inferiority during Jim Crow times. Also, during these times, most of the books and magazines those same children, and adults, would read also had these messages. Some of these messages were quite farfetched—for example, one myth that was enforced said that babies became black by drinking black ink. All of these various racial, and racist, messages are genuine stereotypes because, unlike generalizations, stereotypes are mostly false (or, more often than not, completely false). A generalization, such as “all blacks have darker skin tones” is mostly true, but a stereotype, such as “all blacks are inferior to whites” is mostly false.

    One way of combating “rapid cognition” is being well-educated. This method, which has stood the test of time, of jumping to false conclusions works because of the fact that education makes one more open-minded. Education allows one to view multiple sides of an argument, as well as make one less prone to indoctrination. By making people open-minded, education lessens the chances of people jumping to false conclusions.

    --Michael

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    1. Does the fact that you agree with the results justify the validity of the test?
      I agree with the fact that environment and personal background play a role in our preference of a group of people over another group. I also disagree with the statement that generalizations are mostly true because you can't truly make a generalization on a group of people because of the great variation within that group.Does your dissatisfaction of your classmates arise from their actions or race?
      -Brittney

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    2. I wish I would have done the "Disability IAT"! Was it similar to the "Race IAT"? Do you think the "Race IAT" was really accurate? I saw how results were formed, and I thought it could have been done in a more accurate manner. And aren't your dissatisfactions considered a generalization? Not all blacks (including yourself) are considered to be dissatisfactory. And I completely agree that education is the key to open-mindedness!

      --Aaliyah! :)

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    3. I agree with his statement that education allows us to become more open-minded. Our bias is normally due to our closed-mindedness towards the issues surrounding us. Stereotypes can be considered a product from the bias of close-minded people.
      -James

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    4. I agree with your statement that education lessens the possibility of false conclusions. Educations grants people access to a variety of information about different aspects and people in life.

      I think the dissatisfaction you have with your classmates shouldn't be based on race. Yes the majority of the class is African American but our behaivior, including yours, should not be the basis of your views on Black people.

      ~Jasmine BW

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    5. I agree to an extent, where I disagree is that you believe if people become well-educated it will decease stereotypes. Some of the most wealthiest people and most educated people can be stereotypical due to their lack of exposure.
      ~Romance

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    6. Touche to Romance. Sometimes education widens the divide and people take on an attitude of superiority. Michael, could this be you? Really think about that.

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  4. 1.) When I first saw the results for the quiz i was satisfied, because I had the same preference for not only African American's and European Americans. At first i did actually question the validity of the site because it seemed so spontaneous, but then I trusted it because its an educational site. I believed that i had preference of europeans because of my ancestors and thats the influence i've grown with, but i accept everyone as they are.

    2.) Im going to use the dominican culture and mindsets to explain the thoughts about preference in society. Though today in dominican society people are more accepting, many believe and have been influenced to believe that white and blond or black straight hair is better or preferred. My grandmother influenced me to believe so but her thoughts have changed throughout the changing society today. I believe that it may be a stereotype because of each race's experiences in history and that causes many to believe that is stereotypically inclined. Generalizations can be differed from stereotypes due to the distinct characteristics of each thing. for instance, a stereotype can be something that people call a race and that everyone believes is true, but a generalization inputs different perspectives and different thoughts of different people to differ and argue on an actual conclusion.

    3.) A way of combating rapid cognition is being aware not only intellectually but also through personal experiences. When one analysis things through personal knowledge one can come to conclusions due to knowledge which one obtains (but may differ due to bias and changing knowledge). Through this knowledge can influence how we can risk our rapid changes to false conclusions. Through personal experiences one can connect how we think and what we know through our experiences. People tend to understand various things and concepts due to the different experiences which they undergo and this can be very essential to preventing false conclusions. one must also take into consideration the fact that personal preference influence our false conclusions.

    Franklin

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    1. What personal experiences should be have? Is the onus on the student? the parent? Who fosters this exposure?

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  5. Do you think that these tests are valid? When you first saw your results, did you question or accept the test's validity?
    - My test states that I prefer European Americans oppose to African Americans. This in my opinion was wrong because of the bases of the survey. The test kind of made me upset due to the fact that when it was time to switch African American was affiliated with bad. Now the sudden switch kind of messed with my mind and made me over think the process and made me get a lot wrong because I was use to the other routine.

    Give examples of the cultural messages that may support attitudes linking a dominant group in your nation or culture with "good" or "superior" attributes and a subordinate group with "bad" or "inferior" ones. Are these attitudes generalizations that can be called stereotypes? How can generalizations be distinguished from stereotypes?
    - In America Black Americans have many stereotypes as being a* athletes, musicians or criminals. Some believe that change has occurred but in actuality America uses wealthy Black Americans to oppress other Black Americans;modernized Slavery.Think about it Black Americans are the predominant athletes that compete in the Olympics, which encourages the black youth to aspire to be successful athletes opposed to being a doctor,lawyer or teacher. Now McDonalds is a company hat is eaten by many different races but Black Americans are the ones mostly portrayed in their commercials and they are either singing or dancing (which is very offensive in my opinion). This makes the Black community go and by the unhealthy food. A you can see America is very stereotypical just disguise it differently.A stereotype is a generalization no matter if its positive or negative so there is no way to separate the two.
    ~Romance

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    1. So now that we have had a discussion about hair....are you inclined to change your mind about that?

      Will you take 'good hair' or 'nice hair' out of your vocabulary.

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  6. 3.If some of our consciously held beliefs, attitudes and values are undermined by what Gladwell calls rapid cognition (others call this intuitive thinking or even gut feelings), what do you suggest we can do to combat jumping to (false) conclusions?
    - There is no possible ways not to jump to conclusions due to everyone's jaded perception of one another. You must judge someone in order to get know them. As the saying "Dont judge a book by its cover", this is a false statement. You must look at the cover to decide if you want to read the book.
    ~Romance

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    1. I agree with you to an extent. Sometimes jumping to conclusions is overlooked because we do it so much. Especially when meeting new people. We judge their physical appearance before we decide whether or not we want to further the relationship. We have all judged somebody without knowing them. It's wrong, but it's human nature. I believe that jumping to conclusions can be avoided by doing more research. Before pushing something away to the side, look more into it, give it a chance!
      -Ihu

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    2. Where do these ideas come from with respect to physical appearance?

      ~Basketball Wives
      ~Bad Girls


      How can people construct healthy self-esteem with this in tv?

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  7. 1. I personally don't feel as though the test are valid. I immediately felt this way after seeing my results because I don't agree that I have a preference of whites over blacks. The test can not accurately come to that conclusion because the process deals more with the correlation between hand and brain. I found myself making numerous errors because of the order of pictures and I kept forgetting which key was for which category.
    2. Media is a key source in sending messages of superiority of one race or another. Some sources of media do this with the portrayal of other races based on stereotypes. During World War 2, there was a mass use of propaganda against the Japanese in which they were depicted as demons, rats, and other horrible creatures.
    3. In order to combat jumping to conclusions people should keep an open mind when dealing with things they are not particularly familiar with. Also, they should not make assumptions of other people based off what they have observed someone else do.
    -Brittney

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    1. What is the knowledge issue with respect to propaganda? Are the commercials we watch propaganda?

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  8. 1. I personally don't feel as though the test are valid. I immediately felt this way after seeing my results because I don't agree that I have a preference of whites over blacks. The test can not accurately come to that conclusion because the process deals more with the correlation between hand and brain. I found myself making numerous errors because of the order of pictures and I kept forgetting which key was for which category.
    2. Media is a key source in sending messages of superiority of one race or another. Some sources of media do this with the portrayal of other races based on stereotypes. During World War 2, there was a mass use of propaganda against the Japanese in which they were depicted as demons, rats, and other horrible creatures.
    3. In order to combat jumping to conclusions people should keep an open mind when dealing with things they are not particularly familiar with. Also, they should not make assumptions of other people based off what they have observed someone else do.
    -Brittney

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  9. When I first saw my result I thought that the test was valid because I had got little to no preference between black and white people because I do not classify a particular race that much except for the fact that most whites are richer than most blacks. After the second time I was able to determine that the test was kind of valid but not complete accurate because I got slight automatic preference for European American compared to African American but then again I did get a different test result. The test could also be not valid because the vocabulary that they put up to classify the different race groups for example they use synonyms of good and bad to do black and whites. When it comes to race with me I don’t classify by good and bad I generalize by what a majority of a culture might do or what I hear from other people. For example I might say that majority of Blacks are athletic and majority of whites are rich.

    A cultural message that I see is that most feel that whites are good people who are educated and blacks are bad people who steal and are uneducated. These statements make whites seem more superior to blacks who are seen as inferior. These statements seem more like a stereotype because they are not necessarily true for the whole race of whites and blacks. Generalizations can be distinguished from a stereotype because they are general analyze to a certain race that can be changed over time but a stereotype is over exaggerated analyze that is bias.
    A way of combating jumping to false conclusions is learning for oneself through personal experience. I think this would be the best way because therefore you can see for yourself and then make your generalizations or your stereotypes instead of relying on others.


    -Guyvin

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    1. I agree with you when you said learning through personal experience contributes to us combating jumping to conclusions. We all should try to make our opinions and generalizations through what we have experienced on our own. To many times, we go off what others say to us and we get a shaded perception of a person based off what they may or may not have did to someone else. Stereotypes do, in my opinion, help contribute to personal feeling we may have.

      Nathaniel

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    2. What if your personal experiences have all been negative?

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  10. I do not think this test in valid due to it just measuring how I see things on the computer. When I first saw the results honestly I thought they were true to an extent. My reason is when I had my first Maryland Youth Advisory Council I bonded with the few African Americans before the Caucasians and Asians which were the majority. At the same time I question this test because I don’t think it factors how you a person is raise and what they are surround by culturally.
    A dominant group that links a nation people with bad is In Nigeria beside the two dominant groups which are Yoruba and Igbo there is the Hausawa people. Hausawa are very strong Muslim people in my opinion and currently in Nigeria churches are begin burned/ people killed due to strong radical Hausawa Mulisms. Also how the media portrait them is another factor an example is the “underwear bomber” Attitude: Angry
    Another bad would be African American and the flash mob that happened at various 7-11. Also African American male who have dread locks, wear pants below buttocks and draws are showing they are consider to be the one who have no future. Attitudes: Lazy to work .Lack of self-esteem
    An example of the cultural messages that may support attitudes linking a dominant group in your nation or culture with "good" or "superior" attributes:
    Caucasians are charitable; they do not have the misconception of “it’s all about me” which doesn’t serve in the best interest of the people as a whole. Charities like Susan G.
    Yes these attitude generalizations can be called stereotype because .Stereotypes are overgeneralizations; they often involve assuming a person has certain characteristics based on unfounded assumptions.
    Generalizations can be different from a stereotype by those who make this suggestion knowing the fault in the statement, and being aware that not everyone fits in this category
    Jumping to conclusions is like to conclusions is like putting two and two together and getting five. When our minds race in the wrong direction, it can lead to false conclusions. To stop jumping to conclusions we need to research , look at both sides before judging a matter.
    Esther

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  11. 1.) Do you think that these tests are valid? When you first saw your results, did you question or accept the test's validity?

    -No, I do not think that these tests are valid. When starting the test, I did not know what to expect, but based on the questionnaire, I realized that it would somehow bias my results or affect them in some sort of way. When I first saw my results, I honestly was highly upset. I realized that I was right when I thought that my results were being affected. This test based my results on tests that were, in my opinion, outside of what should have been really tested. Instead of asking me various questions on how I felt about a certain race or age group, my results were based on speed, accuracy, and how many times I selected “moderately agree” (or answers along that line).

    2.) Give examples of the cultural messages that may support attitudes linking a dominant group in your nation or culture with "good" or "superior" attributes and a subordinate group with "bad" or "inferior" ones. Are these attitudes generalizations that can be called stereotypes? How can generalizations be distinguished from stereotypes?

    -In relation to the test, I can refer to the cultural message about African Americans as a stereotyped group. As seen in the “Race IAT” test, 4 factors were used: African American, European, Bad, and Good. At one point, African American was grouped as Good, and then Bad. My results stated that I’d prefer Europeans because I responded faster when grouped with Good. This test basically told me that I view African Americans as “Bad”. Although this is not my official viewpoint, it is a general statement to not only those outside the race, but even those inside of it as well. For example, if a white woman is standing on the street alone at a bus stop at night, and a black man is walking her way, there’s usually a sense of panic within that woman, as the black man could simply just be walking past her. Of course this isn’t with every white person. But just in my example, the races I used were generalizations, because I automatically assume that white people do not like black people (because I have encountered whites who feel this way on various occasions), as most would generalize that black people are “bad” or “inferior”. Although generalizations and stereotypes are almost similar, they are not. Stereotypes can be considered as what is learned socially and indirectly, to where generalizations can be from personal experiences and encounters. So an African American male can be stereotyped to being “drug lords” or have been in jail, but generalized to being “bad”.

    3.) If some of our consciously held beliefs, attitudes and values are undermined by what Gladwell calls rapid cognition (others call this intuitive thinking or even gut feelings), what do you suggest we can do to combat jumping to (false) conclusions?

    -I think that if every person can put aside their personal feelings and attitudes and take the time out to learn about different roles, genders, races, and other major dominate groups, it would be a major step in avoiding the jumping to false conclusions. Because people lack to do this, stereotypes and generalizations are formed, which forms a diversion between all of these groups and add negative energy about each group into the social world.
    --Aaliyah

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    1. Does prejudice lurk consciously all the time or does it lurk in the subconscious waiting for a time to surface?

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  12. I do not think that these results are totally valid. When I completed the test and saw my results, I thought that it was somewhat correct. For the Race IAT, it said that I do not prefer either race, African American or European White, over each other. I think that I feel more comfortable with people that look like me, but as for White people, I can still be around them, and cooperate. I think that my results might have been different if they were not also judging me on how fast I pushed the button. I don't think that was fair because my eyes are sometimes slow and don't recognize things quickly.

    When I first did the Race IAT, it paired African Americans with bad words. I didn't like this because I felt as if the test were stereotyping Black people with violence, and being inferior to Whites who were paired with the good words. I think that these generalizations can be called stereotypes because not all Black or White people are good or bad. I think it just depends on the person and not the color of their skin.

    Before jumping to conclusions, I think that people should be more open-minded. When you are close minded, a person will make up their mind without really knowing about what they are talking about. If you become more educated, then I think that by knowing more, you will have more information to base your opinions off of before jumping straight to conslusions.

    ~Kayla

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    1. I agree with the flaw of their measurement within the Race IAT, I felt as if they were more concerned with how fast you pressed the correct button than one's true opinion. It is true that not all Black people are bad and not all White people are good. Our world isn't in black and white and I didn't like the way the test categorized either race in that manner. I support the notion of our society being more open-minded because if not, we will die in our ignorance.

      -Stella

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    2. How do you foster this open-mindedness when the class generally agreed that certain colleges were not in their "league"? Isn't that a stereotype of community colleges and HBCUs?

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  13. I took the Race and Sexuality IAT
    Race IAT: I don’t the tests are valid because I wasn’t expecting to favor Europeans more than African Americans because I can relate to African Americans more. I think media portrays African Americans as violent and unintelligent, while Whites are demonstrated as the more wealthy and intelligent than African Americans. There are certain songs and artists that talk about African American women and men in a negative way; women are shown as just sex symbols and nothing more than that, while men are seen as the violent drug-involved men that abuse their partners. I remember reading “Kaffir Boy” and how women were thought of as rabbits that just mate and have kids, and the same is similar in the United States; women just have kids that they can’t care for, and then have to sign up for welfare which comes from the productivity of other hard workers. The attitudes that are conveyed through media are generalizations and some people take these generalizations at fact, and this stops interactions between some whites and blacks because blacks are seen of as dangerous, thieves and poor people.
    In terms of combat conclusions I think that we should actually do research and be open-minded instead of accepting these things as they are given to you. In my opinion some things become part of your conscience or gut feelings because they have been instilled in you. So therefore if you’ve been taught that black people are animals and should not be socialized with then, when the time comes for you to actually meet someone of that race, you aren’t as open because of what someone has already told you; these are the reasons why people couldn’t accept blacks openly in the past, and racial tensions in the United States.
    Sexuality IAT: I think in terms of these tests it is valid because I consciously have these beliefs; I do favor straights more than gays. I think that from the past and even some today people haven’t accepted gays because it wasn’t the norm and society was not ready for it; gays were discriminated against (especially during Holocaust and afterwards), and people came up with terms such as “fag” and other degrading terms. My religious views (one of the questions on the questionnaire) affected my preference sexuality. Overall I don’t agree with it but people deserve freedom and liberty to exercise their free-will and desires.
    I think that there are generalizations being formed about homosexuals, but people look at them in a negative way because of it. In general people miss out on getting to know a great person because they let the generalizations dictate their interactions with others, and their lives.
    -Linda

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    1. So why would you say that the sexuality IAT is accurate, but not the race IAT?

      That is definitely interesting Linda. I think you really need to think about that one.

      It may not be at a conscious level, but it may be subconscious.

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  14. I believe these test were valid to an extent. However, there is a strong obstacle in terms of its validity. I did question the test’s validity at first, because they changed associations between “good” and “bad” but the fact that “white” had been associated with “good” first led to mistakes because I got used to the first category, and forgot they’d changed places. Towards the end of evaluating the answer, I became close to accepting its validity, although I still believe these tests contained some inaccuracies.

    There are various cultural messages that support attitudes that show dominance. In my culture, people don’t necessarily rely on skin-tones (although some people in El Salvador are very light skinned, the intense sun exposure tans everyone a bit). However, they treat rarity with a more intriguing attitude. My mother, for instance, is very light skinned, contrary to most of those she grew up with in El Salvador. As a result, people were drawn to her, and was highly favored. I don’t believe people strictly went off on skin tone because it was lighter, but more because it was peculiar compared to most of the population. This leans more towards generalizations, but not all can be considered stereotypes. Stereotypes tend to be more demeaning. Of course, in the end the difference between generalizations is “in the eye of the beholder,” as different things offend different people.

    There is no definite way to combat jumping to false conclusions. We can train ourselves to stop and think before we judge, but it’s very difficult. To combat our instinct is like combating the very nature we’ve grown into for years.

    -Jessica

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    1. I agree with your take on combating false conclusions. I see it as creating assumptions is human nature, and is based off of what we learn from what is around us as we grow older, and therefore it can very well be considered as an instinct. I believe training ourselves to simply control this impulse, and to learn for ourselves before we act upon our assumptions, is the best way for mankind to excel further.

      --Josh A.

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    2. Snap judging is part of human nature, but to continue to hold on to those judgments is altogether different.

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  15. TEST.....

    ~lovely
    (since I can barely post anything with google chrome, which I always use)

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  16. I purposely chose to take the Race IAT Test twice based on my results received from the first test (which I found to be quite interesting). I wouldn't classify the tests as “valid” because both tests showed that I had a slightly automatic preference for European Americans in comparison to African Americans. Yes, I’d rather attend a school with a large number of European Americans but then again I still feel more comfortable with African Americans. Personally I believe that I like both types of Americans the same. The tests were very confusing to me once they switched the position of the labels and the words (good or bad) that were used to describe either European Americans or African Americans. After a while I found myself just pressing the buttons “E and I” consecutively in order for the test to end.

    I found it kind of harsh when the test grouped both bad and African Americans together. I didn't think it was right, but I did better on that section in comparison to the section where bad was placed with European Americans. I found that section to be quite confusing; our society doesn't really correlate European Americans with bad. I got a lot of these answers incorrect. This proved to me that I subconsciously believe that a black man is prone to completing negative thing in comparison to a white man. I feel as though a generalization is a statement made after witnessing an action/ trait of a group of people; while a stereotype often has a negative connotation behind it, and it is often opinionated.

    I think that we should explore. We should combat these false conclusions by experiencing the exact opposite. Instead of seeing an African American convict we should shadow a successful African American neuron surgeon. Instead of seeing an uptight upper class European American Republican, we should see a liberal middle class European American democrat. This is the only way were can destroy these preconceived generalizations and thoughts. Then we will understand that “good” and “bad” is strict to color but character.

    -Stella

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    1. I agree with what you said about our society not really correlating European Americans as bad. I found it confusing as well when I got to that section and realized how biased I am and how my mentally has been manipulated to categorize African Americans as "bad" and not linking that to European Americans because of a false generalization of African Americans.
      I also agree that we should explore the exact opposite of stereotypes and generalizations to combat preconceived notions of a people.
      ---Jayeon---

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    2. Stella, thank you for your honesty. You admit that there has been some programming that you have become aware of and now need to reprogram.

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  17. Follow - Up Questions

    1) Somehow I think the tests were valid because it must have some psychological mechanism to it and so that's the tests were given in such ways: questionnaire about myself, arranging of words to categories like "Good," "Bad," European American," "African American." When I first saw my results, I slightly took the test's validity because my result was that I supposedly preferred European American. I see this slightly true because it sort of reflects my culture, but also, I slightly disagree as well because I don't want to seem racist. I love diversity, but I couldn't expect the results to say, "you're diversed!"

    2) In the Philippines, since there's great disparity of wealth there, rather than having inbalance in ethnic groups, there is inbalance with the poor and the rich. Hence, the "superiors" are the strong upper-middle class (that are considered as rich) and the "inferiors" are the lower-class of all types (that were considered the poor). It's not that it is a stereotype, but it's the reality and the logic of the words "superior" and "inferior." Superior naturally mean having more power , abilities, and/or opportunities than the latter. Therefore, this must be rather a generalization as well. Generalization can be distinguised from stereotypes if it's not specific to just one aspect.

    3) I suggest that we turn to science, since with science we conduct experiments, recieve results, and from the results gain knowledge in order to make conclusions! I think.


    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~LOVELY~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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    1. To what extent can we use science to combat this when the very nature of science is to classify?

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  18. Follow - Up Questions

    1) Somehow I think the tests were valid because it must have some psychological mechanism to it and so that's the tests were given in such ways: questionnaire about myself, arranging of words to categories like "Good," "Bad," European American," "African American." When I first saw my results, I slightly took the test's validity because my result was that I supposedly preferred European American. I see this slightly true because it sort of reflects my culture, but also, I slightly disagree as well because I don't want to seem racist. I love diversity, but I couldn't expect the results to say, "you're diversed!"

    2) In the Philippines, since there's great disparity of wealth there, rather than having inbalance in ethnic groups, there is inbalance with the poor and the rich. Hence, the "superiors" are the strong upper-middle class (that are considered as rich) and the "inferiors" are the lower-class of all types (that were considered the poor). It's not that it is a stereotype, but it's the reality and the logic of the words "superior" and "inferior." Superior naturally mean having more power , abilities, and/or opportunities than the latter. Therefore, this must be rather a generalization as well. Generalization can be distinguised from stereotypes if it's not specific to just one aspect.

    3) I suggest that we turn to science, since with science we conduct experiments, recieve results, and from the results gain knowledge in order to make conclusions! I think.


    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~LOVELY~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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  19. Follow - Up Questions

    1) Somehow I think the tests were valid because it must have some psychological mechanism to it and so that's the tests were given in such ways: questionnaire about myself, arranging of words to categories like "Good," "Bad," European American," "African American." When I first saw my results, I slightly took the test's validity because my result was that I supposedly preferred European American. I see this slightly true because it sort of reflects my culture, but also, I slightly disagree as well because I don't want to seem racist. I love diversity, but I couldn't expect the results to say, "you're diversed!"

    2) In the Philippines, since there's great disparity of wealth there, rather than having inbalance in ethnic groups, there is inbalance with the poor and the rich. Hence, the "superiors" are the strong upper-middle class (that are considered as rich) and the "inferiors" are the lower-class of all types (that were considered the poor). It's not that it is a stereotype, but it's the reality and the logic of the words "superior" and "inferior." Superior naturally mean having more power , abilities, and/or opportunities than the latter. Therefore, this must be rather a generalization as well. Generalization can be distinguised from stereotypes if it's not specific to just one aspect.

    3) I suggest that we turn to science, since with science we conduct experiments, recieve results, and from the results gain knowledge in order to make conclusions! I think.


    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~LOVELY~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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    1. I agree with you, after the classroom discussions I realize my own Bias. When I first took the test I didn't agree with he results I had because I felt I really didn't have a preference for one race over the other, But now I realize the subliminal influences that affects how I Perceive each race. Do you think the simplicity in the method affects how you perceive the validity of the test?
      -Belleh

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    2. I agree with both Belleh and Lovely. I did realize the subliminal influences that affects how I Perceived each race.
      JR

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    3. The first step in the 12 step program to deprogramming is to realize that you have been programmed! LOL

      I am being half facetious and half serious.

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  20. 1. I do not think that these tests are validy. According to the test I am moderately more familary with European Americans than African Americans. I don't see how this can be true considering I have very low interaction with European Americans. I am an African American myself and have been surronderd by this group of people all my life. When i saw the results I immediately dimissed them. This test seemed to focus more on word association and hand eye concentration then racial preferences.

    2. Over the course of time African American people were considered bad while European Americans were considered good. In the days of slavery Black people were considered at the lowest level of society and no where near as important as White people. The White people that owned slaves or supported slavery were considered "masters" or "bosses". Although time and people have progressed and become more understanding racial implications are still present in todays society.

    3. To combat people coming up with false conclusions education of all ethnic groups should be discussed. If people lost some of their ignorance on people that are slightly different then them they would be less likely to make up false conclusions. People should learn about the struggles and triumps faced in each ethnic group in order to gain a good understanding of how and why certain people live the way they do.

    ~Jasmine BW

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  21. Follow - Up Questions

    1) Somehow I think the tests were valid because it must have some psychological mechanism to it and so that's the tests were given in such ways: questionnaire about myself, arranging of words to categories like "Good," "Bad," European American," "African American." When I first saw my results, I slightly took the test's validity because my result was that I supposedly preferred European American. I see this slightly true because it sort of reflects my culture, but also, I slightly disagree as well because I don't want to seem racist. I love diversity, but I couldn't expect the results to say, "you're diversed!"

    2) In the Philippines, since there's great disparity of wealth there, rather than having inbalance in ethnic groups, there is inbalance with the poor and the rich. Hence, the "superiors" are the strong upper-middle class (that are considered as rich) and the "inferiors" are the lower-class of all types (that were considered the poor). It's not that it is a stereotype, but it's the reality and the logic of the words "superior" and "inferior." Superior naturally mean having more power , abilities, and/or opportunities than the latter. Therefore, this must be rather a generalization as well. Generalization can be distinguised from stereotypes if it's not specific to just one aspect.

    3) I suggest that we turn to science, since with science we conduct experiments, recieve results, and from the results gain knowledge in order to make conclusions! I think.


    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~LOVELY~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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  22. Do you think that these tests are valid? When you first saw your results, did you question or accept the test's validity?

    When I found out what were supposed to be doing I immediately thought “oh it’s one of those” But I was genuinely interested in seeing what the results were, even though I’d already decided I wasn’t going to agree with the outcome. I don’t believe these test are valid, but they do set up a framework of how you might think, so there is to an extent a certain validity to it. When I first saw my results I questioned their validity, the test said I had a “moderate automatic preference for European Americans compared to African Americans” I thought it was absurd because the method they used in judging this weren’t very well dignified. First off I automatically correlate everything on right side with good and those on my left with bad. So, when they placed the European American on the right panel and good on the right it was much easier to get those correctly as oppose to the terms to the left. When the positions switched to equate African Americans with good and European Americans with bad, I got used to the way I was doing it before. Because of that I feel my results were affected by which side was dominate side. After the first test, I immediately retook it again and my results came out to be I preferred African Americans over European Americans. This being after I’ve done one before and knew how to perform the task better. But looking back at it I wonder if I purposely missed some so my results would come out a certain way. I originally thought my results would show I had no preference of one race to the other.

    Throughout American History African Americans had to fight for their rights to freedom and equality, as a result of the history in this country one group of people have been categorized as bad" or "inferior", while the other group are seen as "good" or "superior". African Americans are generally seen as “bad” in this society because of the way history portrays them, the way the media depicts them. The attitudes of a few have come to represent that of the whole group.


    -belleh

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    1. Messages come in different forms.....overt and subliminal.

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  23. My results showed I have a slight preference to African Americans then to European Americans. My results for the second test showed I have a moderate automatic preference to light skinned people than to dark skinned people.

    1, I do believe these test are valid. What it does is shows the group we prefer based on how fast we react to the picture or the word. I could understand why someone that reacted more quickly to the picture of a light skinned person can be said to prefer light skinned people to darker ones. After seeing my results, I accepted the validity because before completing the test I already knew I had a preference to a black than to a white person. This may be because that’s my race and the race of my family and most of my friends. So its understandable for me to relate more with them because that’s the race I react with on a daily basis. Also, I already knew I have a preference to light skinned people than to dark skinned people. I already know that, when it comes to dating, I have a preference to a light skinned girl than a dark skinned girl. Don’t know why I just have more of an attraction to them.

    2. In America, some people like to classify all black people as “ghetto” or “ratchet”. This may have come from others prior experience to a bunch of black people acting up. This can contribute why some people might classify black people a bas and white people maybe as positive or good. Also, it can go back to slavery. The black people were the ones enslaved and the whites were the slave owners. Also, during the time of segregation and Jim Crow laws, white people were given rights that blacks didn’t have opportunities to. This can show why some may feel that with being white comes superiority and more power.

    3. Being less ignorant will help us be aware of what we say. When we as a group are ignorant, it can contribute to what we know and will not promote open-mindedness and liberalism. When we jump to false conclusions, it does nothing but give people a feel for the kind of person you are. It makes them make assumptions that we are ignorant or stupid. These assumptions may not be right but it is what they received from the ignorance of some comments we may have made. So, it’s important for us to be knowledgeable before we speak. Like my mother always says to me, think before you speak.


    Nathaniel

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    1. I never saw it as a 'first reaction thing" but more like a what would you say about that race. Do you think our past experiences in life have us the way we are? , connecting that even before you completed the test you already knew the answer? What exactly does attraction mean to you? Is it good? Better? Or what just catches your eye? Will you ever consider dating a dark-skinned girl? Why are blacks still consideed to be angry at the white man when they claim they are not but people still refer to it to approve thier reasoning of thier failures of life. I honestly do not think that not being ignorant will help us be aware of nothing , the human body will do whatever it chooses.



      -Togoe

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    2. So you have been programmed to believe that darker hues are not beautiful? To what extent have we placed value on color?

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  24. I dont think that these test are valid however, I do feel that they are eye-openers. For both test that I took, (race and sexuality) I questioned my results and felt they were not valid; I have no greater preference to any race nor sexuality.

    I did like how the test were set up with the vocabulary linked to the race/sexuality. In known cultures issues black and whites, as Ihu said, many terms are conjugated with how we interpret those racial cultures. The use of some of the terms they are prime examples of these issues. For example, "Rich" I automatically thought of caucasians but remembered that the only reason I would put rich with that category is because the adjectives went on that side. "Angry" I automatically thought of a African-American female such as myself...joke...Overall, they, to me were just seen as generalizations that l e a d to stereotypes. As Linda stated in class earlier on the subject of Heroin she brought up the generalization of the stereotypes that came with the word, and how the term of a hero is usually ignored.

    On the field trip to the Nat'l Geo. Museum earlier, I let my experience lead me to answer this question. Being around many caucasians made me realize that rapid cognition does hinder my false conclusions. For example, I held a conversation with a young white male without thinking I would get in trouble. By allowing myself to be open-minded and answer his question I actually learned a lot out o a few sentences of explanation. However Mike, not only allowing open-mindedness to be a factor of your conclusion making but also allowing to be inquisitive (there is a difference in these terms) can help as to combating conclusion making.

    If comfortable, why is it that you feel you may have more preference to Whites than Blacks? you never got to finish in class.


    Benay

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    1. Good question.....does the media send out this message?

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  25. 1.I don't think the tests are valid based on the methods they use to came up with their results. My results for the race IAT was that I have a slight automatic preference towards African Americans compared to European Americans and my results for the sexual IAT was that I have little to no automatic preference between gay people and straight people. I didn't question the results because they represented my views and preferences. Am more comfortable with African Americans but that doesn't mean I dislike European American I just don' relate to them as much because am not exposed to them in my community.


    2.The media, our culture and our perceptions play an important role on our attitudes to what we consider as a dominant or subordinate group especially when it comes to race and sexuality. I feel as though people are not open minded enough to come up with their own perceptions of a people and rely on the whole and the media for example to base their judgments. The same way people consider African Americans as bad is the same exact way people are oppressing and denying the gay community their rights. Its a whole cycle that people base their judgments on preconceived generalizations and stereotypes. Stereotypes have a negative connotation compared to generalizations.

    3.I think people need to stop being so close minded and expose themselves to different environments, people and cultures in order to base their judgment on the “full story”.

    ---Jayeon---

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    1. I agree with people need to stop being close minded and expose themselves to different environment because I was told by a person that all Cauassians eat is soup and crackers. It wasn't till I learned proper etiquette in eating that I realize it was a lie.

      esther

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    2. There are cultural distinctions with respect to foods and other things that make up culture, but what difference does it really make?

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  26. I question their validity not because I do not believe the results, but because I do not truly think one can find out preferences in life through the use of tests such as these. I took the Race and Religion Questionnaire,and for both my results showed little care or preference to any of the choices; it stated I had little to no automatic preference between African-Americans and European-Americans, which I do not find surprising. To me, race is not something that I pay heavy attention to in my mind. Something that made me reflect on myself however was the results on the Religion Questionnaire, which stated I really had no preference toward any of the religions, but a very very slight preference toward Judaism. I found the fact that Judaism was at the top of the list to be extremely random considering the every little attention I pay to the religion, but I found it interesting that Christianity, the religion I am affiliated with, was held to the same standard in my mind as any other religion.

    The many different cultures that we have introduce many different biases to us. These biases can take shape in the form of preferences as the tests were measuring. I know that in my culture, religion, especially Christianity, is heavily stressed upon. It is rare to go through the day without hearing some sort of "Thank you Jesus!" or "God is Good." in either my house or amongst relatives. Because I grew up with this stressing on religion since birth, I notice that I do not exactly possess the same amount of "energy" toward the subject as older relatives an parents might in my household. I assume that in my mind I interpret it as, "This is nothing new. I've known this since birth." The environment and culture in which one grows up can very well determine their standing on a great number of subjects and topics.

    Jumping to conclusions based off of assumption is a character of human nature that is hard to erase. We base first impressions much off of the assumptions we create in our minds. Whether these assumptions are the result of how one is raised or how the world shows it to them cannot be determined, but fixing assumptions will be much more practical than trying to erase them. Rather than trying to make no one assume anything, give everyone something positive to assume about instead. This will, in the long-run, make the negative generalizations on a certain people invalid.

    --Josh A.

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    1. What can we do right here at Parkdale to foster these kinds of discussions?

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  27. Before even taking the test, I immediately convinced myself that the test would not be valid. By simply reading the instructions I could already tell that my results would probably not what I expected. After completing the tests, my results showed that I had no preference between African Americans and Europeans Americans and I had a moderate automatic preference for Straight people over gay people. Although my results were somewhat I expected, I still do not believe the test is valid because of the way the test was formatted. Because the test required quick answers, I started making more mistakes when the two categories would switch sides. This could certainly affect the test taker’s result because they could become more likely to make errors.
    Dating back to WWII, the people of Nazis Germany believed the superior race was the “Aryan race” which consisted of people with blond hair/blue eyes. They also believed that anyone that did not fall under that category was not a “child of God” and should not be considered “human”. These classifications that had been developed were certainly stereotypes and not generalization. The execution of Jews was based of stereotypes that had been set on them. A stereotype is different from a generalization because of the connotation that it holds. Stereotypes have always held negative connotations. Stereotypes that are set for people normally tend to be false or may only apply to a small group whereas generalizations tend to be true.
    To jumping to false conclusions, we can try to eliminate our own bias. Before making judgments, it is necessary that we educate ourselves first. Our close-mindedness disallows from making good judgments and It limits the number of perspectives that can be viewed.
    -James

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    1. In my experience of the IAT there were two parts, the quick answers and the non-timed selected response answers. You say you believe the test was not valid because of the quick answer section. What about that of the selected answer portion, where it asked more directly for your mindset on the topic you were on?
      On a different note,you say generalizations tend to be true. Where as stereotypes have always held to be negative and tend to be false. A sterotype can be negative or positive based on the recieving party of the statement. For example the notion Chinese kids are smarter than American kids would be a negative stereotype to Americans and a positive and "relatively-true" generalization to the Chinese
      Elijah

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    2. So James, are you saying that there is no such thing as intuitive snap judgments?

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  28. Before taking the test I already had an idea of what I was going to score. My mom had told me about the IAT test before and how her result was that she had no automatic preference to African American or European Americans. I think that only half of the testing could be used as valid information. The part where I had to use hand-eye coordination, I believe, was not valid as I would often make mistakes because I would forget which hand was on which letter. Also the fact that I knew I had to be speedy affected my performance as I would click wrong buttons because I was rushing. However the second part of the test I believe to be more valid because I could take my time and think honestly about the answers I was putting down. When I first saw my results I did not question the test's validity. As I said earlier I already had an idea of what I was going to score and sure enough I scored exactly what I thought I would. An example of a cultural message that support a group being superior or dominant are the teachings of Mormonism. Mormons, among other things, believe that all people on Earth are a form of angel. If you were white you were automatically aligned with the "good" angels. If you were a person of color you were in the League of Fallen Angels that rebelled against God and that they can only achieve a certain place in heaven. The darker the person is the more they were "Fallen." As a result they believe people of color are only capable of doing wrong, whether it be a "small" wrong or a grave injustice. I believe this is a generalization that can be classified as a stereotype. I believe that stereotypes are generalizations that are meant to dehumanize or minimize the culture that is subject to them. I believe the only way to combat jumping to false conclusions is to take the time to do objective research and produce an objective conclusion. However I do not think this is possible as humans tend to research viewpoints and studies that support what they already believe.

    Elijah



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    1. Elijah, sadly I have to agree with your last statement. :(

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  29. 1.Do you think that these tests are valid? When you first saw your results, did you question or accept the test's validity?

    I don’t think that the tests are valid. All though it comes from the almighty Howard, I think it’s too basic. There’s no substance to it than just matching pictures to categories. I had no reaction to my result, honestly I just didn’t care. My preference didn’t really make a difference to me, because at the end of the day, whether your black, white, Muslim, Arabic or etc everyone still acts the same. Everyone is going to be selfish, self concentrate and unappreciative. This is an extremely biased response

    2.Give examples of the cultural messages that may support attitudes linking a dominant group in your nation or culture with "good" or "superior" attributes and a subordinate group with "bad" or "inferior" ones. Are these attitudes generalizations that can be called stereotypes? How can generalizations be distinguished from stereotypes?
    This question could only possible have one response, which is slavery. Dating back in history, Whites have always been superior to blacks. They seem to represent the “GOOD” while blacks represent the “BAD”. Different forms of slavery still exist today, where whites are good and blacks are bad. It may not be as evident as it was in years past but it’s still evident.Generalizations are speaking in terms of more of a whole. What separates the two are, stereotypes are usually hurtful and are used to mock or diminish a group of people.
    3.If some of our consciously held beliefs, attitudes and values are undermined by what Gladwell calls rapid cognition (others call this intuitive thinking or even gut feelings), what do you suggest we can do to combat jumping to (false) conclusions?
    You should be well educated in a topic before you jump to conclusion. It stops you from making a fool of yourself, or just looking like a fool. I am a cultured man, and it helps me stay grounded not to jump to conclusions.
    JR

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    1. How does that 'well-roundedness" get fostered?

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Thanks for posting!!

Swift