Tuesday, September 18, 2012

This Week

1.  We will take a break from reflections this week.  The next one will be due next Friday 9/28/12.

2.  Watch the Steven Pinker Video below and add your commentary.  Be sure to include:

~Applicable concepts and theories from the Language Chapter
~What you found interesting/thought-provoking about what Pinker says
~How does this tie in to our seminar on Metaphors We Live By
~What are the takeaways/implications of what Pinker says
~Due Date is Tuesday 9/25/12




3.  Knowledge is........poem is due by Friday 9/21/12 Electronically (email) 7am






26 comments:

  1. -In this video, I think the key feature that language “is rule-governed” is discussed. Pinker brings facts that contradict this key feature, as he mentions how language is a “window onto human nature” and that “language emerges from human minds” rather than being legislated. Language can have rules, but as people develop and interact, language also develops, showing why words like “tweeps” and “jeggings” have recently been added to the dictionary. This video also addresses the creativity of language, as there are many ways to make statements, in an attempt to create synonymous meanings, or to convince others.
    -One of the things Pinker said that caught my attention was how he mentioned that “language emerges from human minds” and that by the time the French Academy complete their dictionary, it’d already be outdated. Language is constantly changing, as human minds are constantly thinking and developing new ideas. It’s astounding how much can change. We don’t even notice, as we’re part of the development. By simply using new slang, we motivate these changes in language to accommodate our thoughts and ideas.
    -I’d tie this into our seminar, because the changes in language connect to our comprehension. In the seminar, although we were illiterate in the some of the language used in the Jabberwocky, we were still able to comprehend what the text was about. The changes we make in language are to adjust to our comprehension, if not enhance it. At the end of it all, we still understand the basis of what is communicated to us.
    -The takeaways of what Pinker says would have to be that we, as the human minds, are what affect the road language takes. Years before now, who would’ve ever considered words like “jegging” to actually be used? Or to have the slightest idea of what it means. The world is always changing, as is our vocabulary, bringing in new terms, and abandoning some. These language changes are what we apply in our relationships with people, and how we communicate as a society.
    ***Jessica

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  2. 1) Applicable concepts and theories from the language chapter.
    - This seminar channeled to both Language is rule-governed and Language is creative and open ended. Pinker seemed to be against rule-governed language and for creative and open-ended. Int the beginning the French example was good support.

    2)What you found interesting/thought provoking about what Pinker says.
    -"By time the dictionary is completed it will be outdated". New words are created everyday which proves that language is creative.

    3) How does this tie to our seminar on metaphors we live by.
    - Language is universal. What we say can be interpreted in many different ways, some a*re synonymous. In France the word email is pronounced differently but means the same thing.

    4) What are the takeaways/ Implications of what Pinker says.
    -What is being applied is that abstract language is based on concrete metaphors.
    ~Romance

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  3. William:
    While watching the TED Talk video with Steven pinker, my personal interest level was extremely low. Pinker provides a good theory on sayings and language, and how the specific phrasing may alter the concept of the sentence completely. Eventually he did make interesting comments with examples on how switching the subjects at hand may alter the purpose of the sentence. As he kept talking, I then remembered a metaphor that we used in the seminar on "Metaphors We Live By" which was, "Time is money". From the start, I receive a negative greedy image of the person that uses the metaphor. If you approach the metaphor like Pinker and switch time with money, you get "Money is time". The new metaphor sounds different because, we are used to the original pattern and sound, however, the meaning also slightly changes. Instead of a sense of greed, I imagine that the person has a high value of money but not in a way of wanting more and more, but instead, the person seems to view money as an item that he can run out of. On a side note, I also feel that this is what keeps people from learning and mastering new languages, and in the long run, it discourages others to even attempt.

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  4. Pinker actually touched on one of the concepts of language in the book, which states that language is intended. He used examples to support his claims such as the situation with the cop regarding a bribe. He also touches on the concept that language is rule-governed by discussing verb usage. I thought it was interesting how he depicted language as a window to human interaction because I never thought of it that way. This shows that language can be use in order to understand the ways of culture and how humans perceive each other. This tied into the discussion because it showed how metaphors are often using in society with an intended message from the speaker to the listener.
    -Brittney

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  5. -The concepts from the Language chapter that were discussed in the video was the meaning and interpretation of language. Steven Pinker spoke about how sentences can give off meaning because of the positioning of the verb and noun, and how understanding of the sentence isn't regurgitating it but changing it in your own so that you can come to your own meaning of it.
    -An interesting comment made in the video was that "Language is a mirror into human nature", and I think this connects to another example made in the video about the Fargon movie. The kidnappers tried to bribe the policeman with a 50 dollar bill, and because that type of language is understood between both sides it can have many expected results.
    -Although the subject of metaphorical concepts that we use day to day, it was a bit confusing the examples given in the video.I feel the Language chapter did a better job at explainin it than the video.
    -What I can take away from the video is that there are different ways of communicating through language. There were two types of language mentioned in the video: literal and implied. Within the literal context a person can directly derive what the person is expressing to them, but implied language would make the listener read between the lines.
    ~Linda E.

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  6. ~Applicable concepts and theories from the Language Chapter
    It deals with language and translation of language. He explains the different meaning for words and different individual’s interpretation of it. He is also uses metaphor. Eg when the guy gets pulled over and he hands the cop his license with a fifty dollar bill sticking out. We all know it’s a bribe, the cop knows it’s a bribe

    ~What you found interesting/thought-provoking about what Pinker says.
    Majority of the video almost put me to sleep but the few things that caught my attention was the French academy ignorance or their inability to change. They have been working on one book for over forty years. And finally, “Language is a way of negotiating human relationship”. I found this very interesting.
    Learned new word: Communality – sharing within family or very close groups. Usual get individuals who are not related to act as if they were. Do the things family does.

    ~How does this tie in to our seminar on Metaphors We Live By
    It fights perfectly because he states metaphors that we use daily in life. For example, when dating and a lady invites up to see are etchings. We know it’s leading to other areas. Or if someone compliments you on your nice store and says it would be a shame for something to happen to it. They are saying that they are going to rob you.
    ~What are the takeaways/implications of what Pinker says
    I took away that our social language is governed, not just that but language as a whole.
    JR Post

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  7. ---Within the first two minutes of the Steven Pinker Video, he uses the French languages as an example and identifies that this language is rule-governed. The French have an academy whose job is to compose a dictionary of official French, and legislate on correct usage of said language. This academy create the words used (vocabulary) and state how they are to be used (grammar), which are two main elements in language according to the Language Chapter.
    ---One interesting thing that Pinker states is how language is constantly changing and transforming. I’ve never looked at language in such a way, but it’s true. New words are being conjured up every day, new meanings are being added behind previously existing words; change takes place in every aspect of language whether big or small. For example: English; there is proper English and then there is slang. In slang certain words are slurred together, broken up, and given different meanings. One may say “wassup” which is derived from the slang phrase “what is up?” which simply means “what is occurring/ happening now?” in proper English. An example of change of meaning would be when one says “I’m feeling under the weather”, one cannot literally feel under the weather but the meaning behind that phrase has been changed to one’s state of illness. As time progresses and our world advances our language will continuously change in order to adapt.
    ---Pinker also implied that there are two ways in which language is understood: literally and metaphorically (implicated). When one is speaking literally they are direct with what they say, and say what they mean. While in the metaphorical state, the listener has to read in between the lines in order to understand the message being conveyed. An example would be the use of the word time! In the literal meaning one can say “We need move quickly so that we can catch the bus in time” while metaphorically one could say “Time is of the essence, we need to hop on the bus”. Both statements convey the same message, but the listener has to decode the second statement in order to understand its meaning. As humans we intertwine both methods in our language depending on where it suits best.
    ---What Pinker wants his audience to take away from the video was that language is a collective human creation which reflects human nature, it’s how we perceive reality, and it’s how we relate to one another. Based on the video I feel as though Pinker wants to stress the fact that language manipulated by many things, it is the basis social interaction, and is important in order to establish various relationships. Language is a very complex and dimensional area. There are many ways in which one can get their message across by using the different levels within language. He also uses the metaphor to describe language as a window unto human nature. Human nature isn’t structured by language, but language is used to support human nature itself.

    *Stella

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  8. I thought Steve Pinkers discussion of money was very interesting. He talked about the relationship between time and money and the value it holds. Each culture views money in a way specific to their situation. In the United States we live by the quote that "Time is Money". In this capitalist society money is one of the main keys to success.

    A takeaway to this quotation and analysis by Pinker is that each country places their own value on money and time. A tribal village could use beads as a currency that has high or low value depending on the type of bead. The time it takes acquire those beads and what tasks must be completed to obtain that currency would be more valuble then the beads themselves. This can be true in certain social/economic situtaions because the tasks could provide important life lessons that young people need to grow up.

    From a cultural aspect, Pinker talked about the difference between northern and southern Italians. Italians born in the north or south are different from each other in the way that they grow up and the traditional beliefs they hold. This shows how different beliefs can affect the growth and devolpment of a group of people.

    ~Jasmine

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  9. When watching the video, I thought this was going to be a boring video according to what others said, but my conception was wrong. This actually in relation to the video. In the video, Pinker described language in relation to human nature, interactions, and knowledge. In relation to my example, through language interactions, I gained a conception and absorbed one person's thoughts of an "object" and created a generalization to create an understanding ("that this video is about to be long and boring"!). Yet, through viewing the video, the message (language) was transferred to me to give a good basis understanding through the exchange of ideas and thoughts from Pinker. These ideas are based on one of the WOKs: Language. In summary from the chapter, I learned that language is important to knowledge through the exchange of ideas using different types of language and/or slang. A basic conversation can be relevant to your knowledge, because you're discussing differnt ideas and viewpoints. The video does an overview of this as well, but, gives a more synonomous meaning and understanding. Pinker correlates sentence structure with language in relation to knowledge. For example, what really intrigued me was his comparisons of understandings. The two of the converstion have an understanding of what is being said (direct, indirect, and literal meanings), but an outsider may not. In relation to the metaphor seminar, the video explains how sentence structure is a metaphor for knowledge construction in order to transfer our gathered ideas into words for listeners. Human interaction is also a living metaphor for social knowledge. From this video, I learned that "human language reflects human nature." Language is not only how we relate, but also an analysis of one another's thoughts, and applying this conception to new places through this metaphorical expression.

    -Aaliyah!!!

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  10. Pinker was saying how language is used in different ways but sometimes the language we use doesn't always makes sense. He was saying how someone was writing a book and by the time they finish writing the book it will be out if date because the language is not up to date. When Pinker was talking about the verbs and how you could use them he made a good point in saying that you can say a sentence one way but when you change the verbs around it doesn't make sense. Language is a metaphor we live by because it has a underline meaning to it. For example when people use slang the words don't mean exactly what they are but have an underline meaning. As in the word "bad" now a days people will describe a girl as bad meaning sexy but does not take the word "bad" literally.
    -Paige

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  11. In Pinker presentation I saw numerous of things that I found fascinating. I found that the human intelligence consists of a repertoire of concepts (objects, space, time, causation, intention) useful in a social knowledge- intensive species. Also in the article I found it fascinating that he used indirect statements and examples to prove that humans are unconscious of the things that they automatically do from language. The concepts and/or theories that I saw in the textbook language chapter that Pinker used was the concept of revealing and concealing and other concepts like ambiguity and interpretation. The Presentation ties into the seminar on the "Metaphors We Live By" because they express that language is literal and that it used for social interaction. Also another thing how the two are similar is that they express that humans do things that are automatically but not of conscious thought and that our ordinary conceptual system is metaphorical in nature. The takeways and implications of what Pinker said was that he did not say what a metaphor was and why is our conceptual system metaphorically in nature.
    --Guyvin

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  12. - This video showed that even though language is rule governed we still have a way to change it and make it our own with each culture
    - Some interesting things was the way that Pinker connected language with the way we communicate with others. Instead of saying things straight out, we use phrases with a underlying meaning that people in our culture would understand. Also i thought it was interesting how language grows everyday and how slang has the potential to end up in the dictionary.
    - Pinker pointed out how we use metaphors to express something without out directly saying it.
    - i took away that language is rule governed but it is also altered by the culture and the people that use it for example, the way that a joke that is said in english might not translate to be funny in spanish. - Jazmine A

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  13. In this video Pinker used language that sometimes confused me. Even though he is meaning to say one thing his use of words confuse me. An example from the video is when the cop and the bride situation he mentioned. He was saying how the way you write a sentence or the way switch it around changes the meaning. The use of words make a difference.
    Traje'

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  14. Guyvin

    In Pinker presentation I saw numerous of things that I found fascinating. I found that the human intelligence consists of a repertoire of concepts (objects, space, time, causation, intention) useful in a social knowledge- intensive species. Also in the article I found it fascinating that he used indirect statements and examples to prove that humans are unconscious of the things that they automatically do from language. The concepts and/or theories that I saw in the textbook language chapter that Pinker used was the concept of revealing and concealing and other concepts like ambiguity and interpretation. The Presentation ties into the seminar on the "Metaphors We Live By" because they express that language is literal and that it used for social interaction. Also another thing how the two are similar is that they express that humans do things that are automatically but not of conscious thought and that our ordinary conceptual system is metaphorical in nature. The takeways and implications of what Pinker said was that he did not say what a metaphor was and why is our conceptual system metaphorically in nature.

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  15. Elijah

    Ted Video
    ~Applicable concepts and theories from the Language Chapter
    The Ted video seems to support the theory that language is rule governed, language is intended, and that language is creative and open-ended. In the video he pointed out that in the English language there are metaphorical rules that are followed. An example he uses to show this was how the meaning "from_to_" changes depending on the context. The messenger went from Paris to Istanbul. Biff went from sick to well.
    ~What you found interesting/thought-provoking
    What I found interesting was his examples of how language was intended and open-ended. He used an example where a person would offer a bribe to a cop without literally offering a bribe to the cop. Ted said that we know that the cop knows what we are doing so therefore why was the fact that the officer was being offered a bribe not blatantly expressed
    ~How does this tie in to our discussion on Metaphors We Live By
    I think that this video ties into Metaphors We live By, by promoting the metaphor Communication is Understanding. The video is centered around the English language and Ted spends much of his time proving that English is rule governed, intended, and creative and open ended. However, the only thing that matters is that people agree to its rules and understands the language.
    ~What are the takeaways/implications/knowledge issues
    The knowledge issues formed are:
    1. Does something have to be understood to be a language?
    2. Do we relay information or do we actually communicate with each other?
    3. Is language formation based on the culture of the one speaking it?

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  16. 1. In the video, Pinker speaks of language being creative and open ended and also rule governed. He uses French examples to show how language is rule governed. He also talks about how the positioning if the nouns used and verbs can contribute to understanding.

    2. I agree with Pinker when he talked about how language and ways of communication is growing and changing everyday. I agree with this because new words are being added to the dictionary everyday and words that are already in the dictionary are gaining new definitions as well.

    3.This ties in with our seminar because Pinker speaks about how language can be metaphorically used and literally used. During class, we was talking about the quote "Time is money". This quote is metaphorically used and we were discussing if that quote can be used universally. This fits in our seminar because it shows metaphors are used everywhere we go.

    4. What I took away from this video is the different ways that language is perceived. It makes me think what I think is being said in a literal sense might just be used in the figurative sense. Also, I took away from this video that people have different ways of communicating with language everywhere you go therefore answering the question if language is univeral or not.

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  17. TED Video: Steven Pinker (Commentary)

    In this TED video, Steven Pinker discusses the fundamental concepts of language, such as how it can be used literally and metaphorically, what the definition of language is, how language is often not exact, and so on. In the seminar “Metaphors We Live By”, we learned that metaphors are found throughout everyday human life and how we often use them without even thinking about them. The TED video, essentially, reinforces this fact: metaphors permeate the English Language (as well as many other languages) and they are so commonplace that we simply take them for granted. In Chapter 3 of the Theory Of Knowledge textbook (the chapter that deals with Language), the formal definition of language had 3 elements: rules, intention, and open-endedness. In the TED video, Pinker says that language requires merely 2 things: that whoever is sending a message to another person via verbal speech has intended to do such, and that whoever the person who received the message is must interpret that message. That was one of the things that I found interesting when watching the video. Pinker, in the TED video, is basically implying the same thing that the seminar “Metaphors We Live By” and Chapter 3 of the TOK textbook also imply: language is not as simple as it may seem to be, and that a closer look is required if one is to fully understand language.

    Michael

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  18. 1)Some concepts that I noticed were discussed in the video were the definition theory, how language is openended and, meaning and interpretation. When he discussed the definition theory he talked when people speak in a literal sense. He talks about how we can say things and they be exactly what we mean. When he talks about open ended language he talks about how language changes over the years. For example parts of language like definition and connotations. When he talks about interpretation he talks about the scene in Fargo where the person tried to bribe the police officer.
    2)I found it interesting when he talked about changing the order of the words in a sentance could change the meaning of the phrase. For example you can drive the car to Chicago but you can't drive Chicago to the car.
    3) The video ties into the seminar because it explains the different ways that we can use a word. For example the word force can mean an action, or to assert dominance on something or someone.
    4)Some take aways are that the we should watch the way that we say things because of how they can be interpreted and to recognize that we do not speak in a literal sense most of the time.

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  19. Language is a term that has many translation, interpretations and meaning to it. All seeming to line up with one another. Theories portrayed in the Language chapter defined with denotation theory, image theory and definition theory. Meanings that we identify with every day are meant to be found in the dictionary ,of the world and also they are found in the mind. We speak based on what we see and the knowledge based behind thae eyesight of lanuage. Concepts could based on various of aspects and that distinguishes it from the non-living aspects of things. Language is rule-governed,intended and creative and open-ended.
    "Language is not a creature or shaper but a window onto human nature". That line stuck out to me because everybody has thier own way of defineing lanuage and they are all right, to some extent.Because of language we are allowed to have certain things that are not possible and views of different opinions.The reverse concepts of words are not reversible, or that is what Pinker claims. Language is an argument that people stresses over and want to define what is right.
    This vidoe ties in with 'Metaphors we live by' because Pinker said the metaphoriaclly concepts can help abtract certain things, and metaphors are globally and socially use. Language is a way of negotiating relationships and this closes in with any type of language.Our ignorance limits us from realizing the connections between certain things and because of that we have to prove ourselves and pull what we do know.
    Pinker expresses the action of language and different kinds of language and it being not just a literal term. Examples shown in this video was very much. Showing indirect and non direct language, we as humans interpret things differntly and that effects our language as a whole. It reflects human nature.

    -TOGOE

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  20. -Language being rule-governed was definately mentioned in this video. Pinker mentioned that the placement of verbs in a sentence is very important. He talked about adjectives and how they're used in a sentencee too. He also spoke on the interpretations of language. He said that language is used literaly and implicitly. Things thought of as literal and implicit doesnt always apply in the same way in other countries though.
    -One thing that I found interesting from this video was when Pinker said that we extract generalizations from language in order to understand. When you're reading something, in order for you to understand you don't memorize it word-by-word but instead you get the gist of what the reading is talking about by summarizing it. If the whole class was reading something, we would all have different summaries because our minds don't function in the same manner.Also, language being based on metaphors made me think. When I really thought about it, language is based on metaphors. Metaphors in language are used daily by humans without us even realizing. For example if I were to say "You're a stick", stick is connotated with being skinny. I'm not litterally saying that the person's a stick, but they're skinny.
    -It ties into our seminar because he states that language is based on metaphors which I believe is very true. We use metaphors without even realizing these days; it has become permanent in our venaculars. Also, metaphors in one place may not be common in another area. For example the term "Time is money" doesn't apply to all places because not everyone is concerned about getting money all the time. Some people are more worried with farming and doing other cultural things.
    -Pinker basically implied that with all these different factors within language, people are still going o have different viewpoints on them. Also, communication differs in many ways; may it be through metaphors, liteally, implicitly, it's still language though it has different variations.
    -Ihu

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  22. -An applicable concept from the language chapter is that language is open-ended and creative. Pinker says in this video that language emerges from human minds. I agree with this statement because as human beings, we are always coming up with modifications in the words we say in the form of slang. Language is also creative and open-ended because of the use of words from different languages.

    - I found it interesting that Pinker says by "the time the French Academy complete their dictionary, it’d already be outdated". This statement is true because there is no one dictionary that is always up to date. Language as it is spoken is constantly being changed in forms of slang as people continue developing new ideas and continue thinking of new ways of verbal communication.

    - This ties into the seminar because of the different ways language is interpreted and expressed. Pinker uses various examples to show how words can be perceived differently when being used literally or metaphorically. He also mentioned the different ways in which the use of the same word can alter the meaning of what is trying to be communicated.

    - The video has made me realize that language and the way we communicate will never remain the same as time passes. We will always be adding new words to our vocabulary and time passes and we might also delete words from our vocabulary. For example, the way english was spoken during the Victorian Era is significantly different from the way english is spoken today.

    *JAMES*

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  23. IN Pinker presentation I found it very interesting at other time boring an lost.Concept he used that were applicable is rule governed, and intended. He uses the example of the french official who set the rules for french speak speaking words.I thought about his theory on verbs have some are double constructive while other are not. WHAT i Found very interesting in the text was when he talked about how there is two type of meaning to a language 1. is we take it literally 2, Use for social interaction .This made me think about how often I speak and use metaphors. This TEXT Ties into the seminar because even we did not know what a Jabberwocky was I though of it some monster.Also to beware of the jabberwocky in the poem told me the character had to be very catious.
    the takeaways/implications of what Pinker says
    1. To what extent is language universal?
    2.How we speak because stuff we say is truly for socail interaction or taken literally.
    3.Could smaller word be use to ask questions or make a statement?

    ESTHER

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  24. Pinker touches on points such as the structure of language as a whole. His viewpoint on language is more Anglocentric He states English indirectness (ie. Could you please pass me those papers) is a cultural thing and can perhaps give some exclusive insight into language and thought of the English-speaking world rather than that of other cultures.

    I found interesting presentation on language is the idea that it’s always changing, new words are constantly being invented every day. Take for instance in the lives of upcoming teenagers and young adults who use slang, though they aren’t official words in the dictionary the intentions and purpose are as clear as those in the dictionary; Those which are considered a proper’ use of language.

    The videos ties in with the seminar Metaphors we live by as metaphors are in our everyday lives and we use them to associate many different ideas together. metaphors are a part of languages, we use them for social interactions, expressing and stretching our views and ideals. I took away from the video that language is not just in the limited scope on conversing and interaction as I once thought, it incorporates different fields. another take away point is, language is always changing.

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  25. (I didn't post anonymous in my previous post.)

    Pinker explains that language itself is rule-governed; we dissect sentences and words in a semantic manner, meaning that we derive meaning from them firsthand in order to gain personal knowledge and understanding. Looking at the grammar in the sentence, the manner in which certain words are used, the position of certain vocabulary or even deciphering how certain words are expressed as nouns or verbs all are examples of rule-governing in language. We gain meaning through these "rules" that apply, whether we are consciously aware that we are implementing these rules as we read or not. Attempts of this rule-governing are seen as examples from a French Academy; they are currently attempting to construct a dictionary that encompasses the vocabulary and meanings of the total French language. The idea is a noble one; it is an attempt to compress the language of the French into one volume for quick interpretation and look-ups. However, can this idea truly be accomplished? An interesting point that Pinker made is that language is constantly changing. New views and mindsets feed into different meanings and different words entirely, which in turn always modifies a language. The flexible idea of language that is always open for alteration cannot be grasped by the permanent print of a book. As we evolve in our ways of thinking, we modify our language, especially through the use of slang. New words, not only in English but in other languages as well, are constantly being created and used in order to describe situations that may have not been noticed or necessary to describe some years ago. Meanings and ideas change throughout time, hence the controversy between the "N" word. Although its meaning in the past was derogatory and dehumanizing, the manner in which individuals use it now does not so much as express the same idea as it may have many years ago. What if this "N" word was placed in the dictionary the very first time it was thought up of? Its definition would be very different from how we use it today.

    The power of language is shown in the reading "Metaphors We Live By." We use language to describe lifestyles and personal ideas of certain topics. However, these ideas and lifestyles change over time, and between persons. Some may say marriage is a binding contract, making it seem like the one who said this thinks of marriage more in terms of work than enjoyment. Their use of language expresses their ideals and beliefs. However, another may say marriage is war. This individual believes marriage is a constant battle between two significant others, showing a negative connotation to the word. These metaphors that we create via language are subtle expressions of personal feelings.

    --JOSH

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  26. The TED video above discusses the concept of language. He
    discusses the metaphorical and literary elements of writing
    and how language itself isn't consistent. Our humanity uses
    metaphors unconsciously which the "Metaphors we live by"
    seminar describes. Steve Pinker establishes language and how
    humanity takes it for granted. He states the different
    principles of language which are described in chapter 3 in
    our TOK book. He gives a good overview of the rule governed
    principles of language and gives an understanding of the
    distinctive principles of language all around the world. In
    chapter 3, the 3 elements are reiterated by Pinker to give a
    broad understanding of language; rules, intuition, and
    open-endedness. Through these factors he gives viewers an
    insight of how language is perceived at a global scale. For
    instance, the chapter and the video connect to illustrate how
    one person communicates with another verbally and how the
    listener perceives or may perceive the received message in
    his/he own way. What I got from this video is a wider range
    of understanding of language and the different aspects of it.
    I took a lot from learning about the self governed rules of
    languange, how language is perceived here and in the exterior
    world. This video gives a good explanation of language and
    its elements in our world today.

    -FRANKLIN

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Thanks for posting!!

Swift